OSHA Crane Law 

Making a living shouldn’t have to cost you your life. Workplace fatalities, injuries, and illnesses are preventable. Safe jobs happen because employers make the choice to fulfill their responsibilities and protect their workers.

— Dr. David Michaels Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health

Before OSHA was created 43 years ago, an estimated 14,000 workers were killed on the job every year. Today, workplaces are much safer and healthier, going from 38 fatal injuries a day to 12. But there is still much work to be done.

WORKER FATALITIES
4,821 workers died on the job in 2014

OSHA 1926.1400 KEY POINTS

This standard applies to power-operated equipment, when used in construction that can hoist, lower and horizontally move a suspended load.

DEFINITIONS
1926.1401

  • Blocking (also referred to as “cribbing”) is wood or other material used to support equipment or a component and distribute loads to the ground. It is typically used to support lattice boom sections during assembly/disassembly and under outrigger and stabilizer floats.
  • Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
  • Dedicated spotter (power lines): To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of § 1926.1428 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.
  • Upperworks means the revolving frame of equipment on which the operating machinery (and many cases the engine) are mounted along with the operator’s cab. The counterweight is typically supported on the rear of the upperstructure and the boom or other front end attachment is mounted on the front.

 

 

1926.1402       GROUND CONDITIONS

  • “Ground conditions” means the ability of the ground to support the equipment (including slope, compaction, and firmness).
  • “Supporting materials” means blocking, mats, cribbing, marsh buggies (in marshes/wetlands), or similar supporting materials or devices.
  • The equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground conditions are firm, drained, and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the equipment manufacturer’s specifications for adequate support and degree of level of the equipment are met. The requirement for the ground to be drained does not apply to marshes/wetlands.
  • The controlling entity must:
    • Ensure that ground preparations necessary to meet the requirements
    • Inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) if those hazards are identified in documents (such as site drawings, as-built drawings, and soil analyses) that are in the possession of the controlling entity (whether at the site or off-site) or the hazards are otherwise known to that controlling entity.
    • If there is no controlling entity for the project, the must be met by the employer that has authority at the site to make or arrange for ground preparations needed to meet requirements.
    • If the A/D director or the operator determines that ground conditions do not meet the requirements of this section, that person’s employer must have a discussion with the controlling entity regarding the ground preparations that are needed so that, with the use of suitable supporting materials/devices (if necessary), the requirements are met.

 

 

1926.1403 – ASSEMBLY

  • When assembling or disassembling equipment (or attachments), the employer must comply with all applicable manufacturer prohibitions and must comply with either:
    • Manufacturer procedures applicable to assembly and disassembly, or
    • Employer procedures for assembly and disassembly.
    • Employer procedures may be used only where the employer can demonstrate that the procedures used meet the requirements in § 1926.1406.

Note: The employer must follow manufacturer procedures when an employer uses synthetic slings during assembly or disassembly rigging. (See § 1926.1404(r)

 

 

1926.1404 – Assembly/Disassembly
General requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations).

Supervision—competent-qualified person.

 

  • Assembly/disassembly must be directed by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person, or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons (‘‘A/D director’’).

 

  • Where the assembly/disassembly is being performed by only one person, that person must meet the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person. For purposes of this standard, that person is considered the A/D director.

 

Knowledge of procedures.

 

  • The A/D director must understand the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures.

 

Review of procedures.

 

  • The A/D director must review the applicable assembly / disassembly procedures immediately prior to the commencement of assembly/disassembly

 

  • Unless the A/D director understands the procedures and has applied them to the same type and configuration of equipment (including accessories, if any).

 

Crew instructions.

 

  • Before commencing assembly/disassembly operations, the A/D director must ensure that the crew members understand all of the following:

 

    • Their tasks.
      • The hazards associated with their tasks.
      • The hazardous positions/locations that they need to avoid.
      • During assembly/disassembly operations, before a crew member takes on a different task, or when adding new personnel during the operations, the requirements must be met.

 

Protecting assembly/disassembly crew members out of operator view.

  • Before a crew member goes to a location that is out of view of the operator and is either in, on, or under the equipment, or near the equipment (or load) where the crew member could be injured by movement of the equipment (or load), the crew member must inform the operator that he/she is going to that location.

 

  • Where the operator knows that a crew member went to a location covered by this section, the operator must not move any part of the equipment (or load) until the operator is informed in accordance with a pre-arranged system of communication that the crew member is in a safe position.

 

Working under the boom, jib or other components.

 

  • When pins (or similar devices) are being removed, employees must not be under the boom, jib, or other components, except where the requirements of paragraph (f)(2) of this section are met.

 

Exception.

 

  • Where the employer demonstrates that site constraints require one or more employees to be under the boom, jib, or other components when pins (or similar devices) are being removed, the A/D director must implement procedures that minimize the risk of unintended dangerous movement and minimize the duration and extent of exposure under the boom. (SeeNon-mandatory appendix B of this subpart for an example.)

 

Capacity limits

  • During all phases of assembly/disassembly, rated capacity limits for loads imposed on the equipment, equipment components (including rigging), lifting lugs and equipment accessories, must not be exceeded for the equipment being assembled/disassembled

 

Addressing specific hazards.

  • The A/D director supervising the assembly/disassembly operation must address the hazards associated with the operation, which include:

 

    • Site and ground bearing conditions. – Site and ground conditions must be adequate for safe assembly/disassembly operations and to support the equipment during assembly/disassembly (see § 1926.1402 for ground condition requirements).

 

    • Blocking material. – The size, amount, condition and method of stacking the blocking must be sufficient to sustain the loads and maintain stability.

 

    • Proper location of blockingWhen used to support lattice booms or components, blocking must be appropriately placed to: (i) Protect the structural integrity of the equipment, and (ii) Prevent dangerous movement and collapse.

 

    • Verifying assist crane loads – When using an assist crane, the loads that will be imposed on the assist crane at each phase of assembly/disassembly must be verified in accordance with § 1926.1417(o)(3) before assembly/disassembly begins.

 

    • Boom and jib pick points. – The point(s) of attachment of rigging to a boom (or boom sections or jib or jib sections) must be suitable for preventing structural damage and facilitating safe handling of these components.

 

    • Center of gravity. – The center of gravity of the load must be identified if that is necessary for the method used for maintaining stability.
      • Where there is insufficient information to accurately identify the center of gravity, measures designed to prevent unintended dangerous movement resulting from an inaccurate identification of the center of gravity must be used. (See Non-mandatory appendix B of this subpart for an example.)

 

    • Stability upon pin removal. – The boom sections, boom suspension systems (such as gantry A-frames and jib struts), and components must be rigged or supported to maintain stability upon the removal of the pins.

 

    • Snagging. – Suspension ropes and pendants must not be allowed to catch on the boom or jib connection pins or cotter pins (including keepers and locking pins).

 

    • Struck by counterweights.- The potential for unintended movement from inadequately supported counterweights and from hoisting counterweights.

 

    • Boom hoist brake failure.-  Each time reliance is to be placed on the boom hoist brake to prevent boom movement during assembly/disassembly, the brake must be tested prior to such reliance to determine if it is sufficient to prevent boom movement. If it is not sufficient, a boom hoist pawl, other locking device/backup braking device, or another method of preventing dangerous movement of the boom (such as blocking or using an assist crane) from a boom hoist brake failure must be used.

 

    • Loss of backward stability – Backward stability before swinging the upperworks, travel, and when attaching or removing equipment components.

 

    • Wind speed and weather – The effect of wind speed and weather on the equipment.

 

 

Cantilevered boom sections

  • Manufacturer limitations on the maximum amount of boom supported only by cantilevering must not be exceeded. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must determine in writing this limitation, which must not be exceeded.

 

Weight of components

  • The weight of each of the components must be readily available.

 

Components and configuration

  • The selection of components, and configuration of the equipment, that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment must be in accordance with:
    • Manufacturer instructions, prohibitions, limitations, and specifications. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must approve, in writing, the selection and configuration of components; or Approved modifications that meet the requirements of §

 

 

1926.1434 – Equipment modifications

Post-assembly inspection.

  • Upon completion of assembly, the equipment must be inspected to ensure compliance with paragraph (m)(1) of this section (see § 1926.1412(c) for post-assembly inspection requirements).

 

Shipping pins –  

  • Reusable shipping pins, straps, links, and similar equipment must be removed. Once they are removed they must either be stowed or otherwise stored so that they do not present a falling object hazard.

 

Pile driving –

Equipment used for pile driving must not have a jib attached during pile driving operations.

 

Outriggers and Stabilizers –

  • When the load to be handled and the operating radius require the use of outriggers or stabilizers, or at any time when outriggers or stabilizers are used, all of the following requirements must be met (except as otherwise indicated):
    • The outriggers or stabilizers must be either fully extended or, if manufacturer procedures permit, deployed as specified in the load chart.
    • The outriggers must be set to remove the equipment weight from the wheels, except for locomotive cranes.  This provision does not apply to stabilizers.
    • When outrigger floats are used, they must be attached to the outriggers. When stabilizer floats are used, they must be attached to the stabilizers.
    • Each outrigger or stabilizer must be visible to the operator or to a signal person during extension and setting.
    • Outrigger and stabilizer blocking must:
      • Meet the requirements in paragraphs (h)(2) and (h)(3) of this section. (ii) Be placed only under the outrigger or stabilizer float/pad of the jack or, where the outrigger or stabilizer is designed without a jack, under the outer bearing surface of the extended outrigger or stabilizer beam.
  • For locomotive cranes, when using outriggers or stabilizers to handle loads, the manufacturer’s procedures must be followed. When lifting loads without using outriggers or stabilizers, the manufacturer’s procedures must be met regarding truck wedges or screws.

 

Rigging.

In addition to following the requirements in 29 CFR 1926.251 and other requirements in this and other standards applicable to rigging, when rigging is used for assembly/disassembly, the employer must ensure that:

  • The rigging work is done by a qualified rigger.
  • Synthetic slings are protected from: Abrasive, sharp or acute edges, and configurations that could cause a reduction of the sling’s rated capacity, such as distortion or localized compression.
    NOTE: Requirements for the protection of wire rope slings are contained in 29 CFR 1926.251(c)(9).
  • When synthetic slings are used, the synthetic sling manufacturer’s instructions, limitations, specifications and recommendations must be followed.

 

 

1926.1405 – Dismantling (including dismantling for changing the length of) booms and jibs.

  • None of the pins in the pendants are to be removed (partly or completely) when the pendants are in tension.

 

  • None of the pins (top or bottom) on boom sections located between the pendant attachment points and the crane/derrick body are to be removed (partly or completely) when the pendants are in tension.

 

  • None of the pins (top or bottom) on boom sections located between the uppermost boom section and the crane/derrick body are to be removed (partly or completely) when the boom is being supported by the uppermost boom section resting on the ground (or other support).

 

  • None of the top pins on boom sections located on the cantilevered portion of the boom being removed (the portion being removed ahead of the pendant attachment points) are to be removed (partly or completely) until the cantilevered section to be removed is fully supported.

 

1926.1406

  • When using employer procedures instead of manufacturer procedures for assembly/disassembly, the employer must ensure that the procedures:
  • Prevent unintended dangerous movement, and prevent collapse, of any part of the equipment.

 

  • Provide adequate support and stability of all parts of the equipment.

 

  • Position employees involved in the assembly/disassembly operation so that their exposure to unintended movement or collapse of part or all of the equipment is minimized.

 

Qualified person.

  • Employer procedures must be developed by a qualified person.

 

 

1926.1407

 

Before assembling or disassembling equipment, the employer must determine if any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) could get, in the direction or area of assembly/disassembly, closer than 20 feet to a power line during the assembly/disassembly process. If so, the employer must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, as follows:

 

Option (1)—

  • Deenergize and ground. Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.

 

Option (2)—

  • 20 foot clearance. Ensure that no part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer than 20 feet to the power line by implementing the measures specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

 

Determine if any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), could get closer than the minimum clearance distance to the power line permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408). If so, then the employer must follow the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section to ensure that no part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer to the line than the minimum clearance distance.

 

Preventing encroachment/electrocution.

  • Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, all of the following requirements must be met:

 

  • Conduct a planning meeting with the Assembly/Disassembly director (A/D director), operator, assembly/disassembly crew and the other workers who will be in the assembly/disassembly area to review the location of the power line(s) and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.

 

  • If tag lines are used, they must be nonconductive.

 

  • At least one of the following additional measures must be in place. The measure selected from this list must be effective in preventing encroachment.The additional measures are:

 

  • Use a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the equipment operator. The dedicated spotter must:

 

  • Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).

 

  • Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.

 

  • Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.

 

  • Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.

 

  • A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.

 

  • A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.

 

  • A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.

 

  • An elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings.

 

Assembly/disassembly below power lines prohibited.

  • No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), whether partially or fully assembled, is allowed below a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.

 

Assembly/disassembly inside Table A clearance prohibited.

  • No part of a crane/derrick, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), whether partially or fully assembled, is allowed closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A (see § 1926.1408) to a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line.

 

Voltage information.

  • Where Option (3) of this section is used, the utility owner/operator of the power lines must provide the requested voltage information within two working days of the employer’s request.

 

Power lines presumed energized.

  • The employer must assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.

 

Posting of electrocution warnings.

  • There must be at least one electrocution hazard warning conspicuously posted in the cab so that it is in view of the operator and (except for overhead gantry and tower cranes) at least two on the outside of the equipment.

 

1926.1408

 

Hazard assessments and precautions inside the work zone.

Before beginning equipment operations, the employer must:

Identify the work zone by either:

  • Demarcating boundaries (such as with flags, or a device such as a range limit device or range control warning device) and prohibiting the operator from operating the equipment past those boundaries, or

 

  • Defining the work zone as the area 360 degrees around the equipment, up to the equipment’s maximum working radius.

 

  • Determine if any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), if operated up to the equipment’s maximum working radius in the work zone, could get closer than 20 feet to a power line. If so, the employer must meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, as follows:

 

Option (1)–Deenergize and ground.

  • Confirm from the utility owner/operator that the power line has been deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.

 

Option (2)–20 foot clearance.

  • Ensure that no part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer than 20 feet to the power line by implementing the measures specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

 

  • Determine the line’s voltage and the minimum approach distance permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408).

 

  • Determine if any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), while operating up to the equipment’s maximum working radius in the work zone, could get closer than the minimum approach distance of the power line permitted under Table A (see § 1926.1408). If so, then the employer must follow the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section to ensure that no part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), gets closer to the line than the minimum approach distance.

 

Preventing encroachment/electrocution.

  • Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2) or Option (3) of this section, all of the following requirements must be met:

 

  • Conduct a planning meeting with the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load to review the location of the power line(s), and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.

 

  • If tag lines are used, they must be non-conductive.

 

  • Erect and maintain an elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, at 20 feet from the power line (if using Option (2) of this section) or at the minimum approach distance under Table A (see § 1926.1408) (if using Option (3) of this section). If the operator is unable to see the elevated warning line, a dedicated spotter must be used as described in § 1926.1408(b)(4)(ii) in addition to implementing one of the measures described in § § 1926.1408(b)(4)(i), (iii), (iv) and (v).

 

  • Implement at least one of the following measures:
    • A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.
    • A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. Where this measure is selected, the dedicated spotter must:
      • Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
      • Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
      • Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.

 

  • Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.

 

  • A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.

 

  • A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.

 

  • An insulating link/device, as defined in § 1926.1401, installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load.

 

  • The requirements of paragraph (b)(4) of this section do not apply to work covered by subpart V of this part.

 

Voltage information.

  • Where Option (3) of this section is used, the utility owner/operator of the power lines must provide the requested voltage information within two working days of the employer’s request.

 

Operations below power lines.

  • No part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is allowed below a power line unless the employer has confirmed that the utility owner/operator has deenergized and (at the worksite) visibly grounded the power line, except where one of the exceptions in paragraph (d)(2) of this section applies.

 

Exceptions.

  • Paragraph (d)(1) of this section is inapplicable where the employer demonstrates that one of the following applies:

 

  • The work is covered by subpart V of this part.

 

  • For equipment with non-extensible booms: The uppermost part of the equipment, with the boom at true vertical, would be more than 20 feet below the plane of the power line or more than the Table A of this section minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line.

 

  • For equipment with articulating or extensible booms: The uppermost part of the equipment, with the boom in the fully extended position, at true vertical, would be more than 20 feet below the plane of the power line or more than the Table A of this section minimum clearance distance below the plane of the power line.

 

  • The employer demonstrates that compliance with paragraph (d)(1) of this section is infeasible and meets the requirements of § 1926.1410.

 

Power lines presumed energized.

  • The employer must assume that all power lines are energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.

 

  • When working near transmitter/communication towers where the equipment is close enough for an electrical charge to be induced in the equipment or materials being handled, the transmitter must be deenergized or the following precautions must be taken:

 

  • The equipment must be provided with an electrical ground.

 

  • If tag lines are used, they must be non-conductive.

 

Training.

 

The employer must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the equipment on all of the following:

 

  • The procedures to be followed in the event of electrical contact with a power line. Such training must include:
    • Information regarding the danger of electrocution from the operator simultaneously touching the equipment and the ground.
    • The importance to the operator’s safety of remaining inside the cab except where there is an imminent danger of fire, explosion, or other emergency that necessitates leaving the cab.
    • The safest means of evacuating from equipment that may be energized.
    • The danger of the potentially energized zone around the equipment (step potential).
    • The need for crew in the area to avoid approaching or touching the equipment and the load.
    • Safe clearance distance from power lines.
    • Power lines are presumed to be energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.
    • Power lines are presumed to be uninsulated unless the utility owner/operator or a registered engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a line is insulated.
    • The limitations of an insulating link/device, proximity alarm, and range control (and similar) device, if used.
    • The procedures to be followed to properly ground equipment and the limitations of grounding.

 

  • Employees working as dedicated spotters must be trained to enable them to effectively perform their task, including training on the applicable requirements of this section.

 

  • Training under this section must be administered in accordance with § 1926.1430(g).

 

  • Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as:
    • A safety device (see § 1926.1415), operational aid, or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution, when used to comply with this section, must meet the manufacturer’s procedures for use and conditions of use.

 

TABLE A—MINIMUM CLEARANCE DISTANCES

Voltage
(nominal, kV, alternating current)
Minimum clearance distance
(feet)
up to 50
over 50 to 200
over 200 to 350
over 350 to 500
over 500 to 750
over 750 to 1,000
over 1,000
10
15
20
25
35
45(as established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution).

Note: The value that follows “to” is up to and includes that value. For example, over 50 to 200 means up to and including 200kV.

 

 

1926.1409

 

  • The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except:

 

  • For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance “20 feet” is specified, the distance “50 feet” must be substituted; and

 

  • For power lines over 1000 kV, the minimum clearance distance must be established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution.

 

1926.1410

 

  • Equipment operations in which any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A of § 1926.1408 to an energized power line is prohibited, except where the employer demonstrates that all of the following requirements are met:
  • The employer determines that it is infeasible to do the work without breaching the minimum approach distance under Table A of § 1926.1408.
  • The employer determines that, after consultation with the utility owner/operator, it is infeasible to deenergize and ground the power line or relocate the power line.

Minimum clearance distance.

  • The power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution determines the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained to prevent electrical contact in light of the on-site conditions. The factors that must be considered in making this determination include, but are not limited to: Conditions affecting atmospheric conductivity; time necessary to bring the equipment, load line, and load (including rigging and lifting accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and other conditions affecting the ability to prevent electrical contact.
  • Paragraph (c)(1) of this section does not apply to work covered by Subpart V of this part; instead, for such work, the minimum approach distances established by the employer under § 1926.960(c)(1)(i) apply.
  • A planning meeting with the employer and utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) is held to determine the procedures that will be followed to prevent electrical contact and electrocution. At a minimum these procedures must include:
  • If the power line is equipped with a device that automatically reenergizes the circuit in the event of a power line contact, before the work begins, the automatic reclosing feature of the circuit interrupting device must be made inoperative if the design of the device permits.
  • A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. The dedicated spotter must:
  • Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).
  • Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
  • Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
  • Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
  • An elevated warning line, or barricade (not attached to the crane), in view of the operator (either directly or through video equipment), equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, to prevent electrical contact. However, this provision does not apply to work covered by subpart V of this part.

Insulating link/device.

  • An insulating link/device installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load.
  • All employees, excluding equipment operators located on the equipment, who may come in contact with the equipment, the load line, or the load must be insulated or guarded from the equipment, the load line, and the load through an additional means other than the device described in paragraph (d)(4)(v)(A) of this section. Insulating gloves rated for the voltage involved are adequate additional means of protection for the purposes of this paragraph.
  • Nonconductive rigging if the rigging may be within the Table A of § 1926.1408 distance during the operation.
  • If the equipment is equipped with a device that automatically limits range of movement, it must be used and set to prevent any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) from breaching the minimum approach distance established under paragraph (c) of this section.
  • If a tag line is used, it must be of the nonconductive type.
  • Barricades forming a perimeter at least 10 feet away from the equipment to prevent unauthorized personnel from entering the work area. In areas where obstacles prevent the barricade from being at least 10 feet away, the barricade must be as far from the equipment as feasible.
  • Workers other than the operator must be prohibited from touching the load line above the insulating link/device and crane. Operators remotely operating the equipment from the ground must use either wireless controls that isolate the operator from the equipment or insulating mats that insulate the operator from the ground.
  • Only personnel essential to the operation are permitted to be in the area of the crane and load.
  • The equipment must be properly grounded.
  • Insulating line hose or cover-up must be installed by the utility owner/operator except where such devices are unavailable for the line voltages involved.
  • The procedures developed to comply with paragraph (d) of this section are documented and immediately available on-site.
  • The equipment user and utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer) meet with the equipment operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load to review the procedures that will be implemented to prevent breaching the minimum approach distance established in paragraph (c) of this section and prevent electrocution.
  • The procedures developed to comply with paragraph (d) of this section are implemented.
  • The utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer) and all employers of employees involved in the work must identify one person who will direct the implementation of the procedures. The person identified in accordance with this paragraph must direct the implementation of the procedures and must have the authority to stop work at any time to ensure safety.

If a problem occurs implementing the procedures being used to comply with paragraph (d) of this section, or indicating that those procedures are inadequate to prevent electrocution, the employer must safely stop operations and either develop new procedures to comply with paragraph (d) of this section or have the utility owner/operator deenergize and visibly ground or relocate the power line before resuming work.

Devices originally designed by the manufacturer for use as a safety device (see § 1926.1415), operational aid, or a means to prevent power line contact or electrocution, when used to comply with this section, must comply with the manufacturer’s procedures for use and conditions of use.

The employer must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the equipment in accordance with § 1926.1408(g).

 

1926.1411 – Traveling under or near a power line on construction site

This section establishes procedures and criteria that must be met for equipment traveling under or near a power line on a construction site with no load. Equipment traveling on a construction site with a load is governed by § § 1926.1408, 1926.1409 or 1926.1411, whichever is appropriate, and § 1926.1417(u).

 

  • The employer must ensure that:

 

    • The boom/mast and boom/mast support system are lowered sufficiently to meet the requirements of this paragraph.
    • The clearances specified in Table T of this section are maintained.
    • The effects of speed and terrain on equipment movement (including movement of the boom/mast) are considered so that those effects do not cause the minimum clearance distances specified in Table T of this section to be breached.

 

Dedicated spotter

If any part of the equipment while traveling will get closer than 20 feet to the power line, the employer must ensure that a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the driver/operator is used. The dedicated spotter must:

  • Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.
  • Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.
  • Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.
  • Additional precautions for traveling in poor visibility. When traveling at night, or in conditions of poor visibility, in addition to the measures specified in paragraphs (b)(1) through (4) of this section, the employer must ensure that:
  • The power lines are illuminated or another means of identifying the location of the lines is used.
  • A safe path of travel is identified and used.

 

1926.1412 – Equipment

Equipment that has had modifications or additions which affect the safe operation of the equipment (such as modifications or additions involving a safety device or operational aid, critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism) or capacity Must be inspected by a qualified person after such modifications/additions have been completed, prior to initial use. The inspection must meet all of the following requirements:

 

  • The inspection must assure that the modifications or additions have been done in accordance with the approval obtained pursuant to § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications).

 

  • The inspection must include functional testing of the equipment.

 

  • Equipment must not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that the requirements of paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section have been met.

 

Repaired/adjusted equipment.

 

Equipment that has had a repair or adjustment that relates to safe operation (such as: A repair or adjustment to a safety device or operator aid, or to a critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism), must be inspected by a qualified person after such a repair or adjustment has been completed, prior to initial use. The inspection must meet all of the following requirements:

 

  • The qualified person must determine if the repair/adjustment meets manufacturer equipment criteria (where applicable and available).

 

  • Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable or inapplicable, the qualified person must:

 

  • Determine if a registered professional engineer (RPE) is needed to develop criteria for the repair/adjustment. If an RPE is not needed, the employer must ensure that the criteria are developed by the qualified person. If an RPE is needed, the employer must ensure that they are developed by an RPE.

 

  • Determine if the repair/adjustment meets the criteria developed in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section.

 

  • The inspection must include functional testing of the repaired/adjusted parts and other components that may be affected by the repair/adjustment.

 

  • Equipment must not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that the repair/adjustment meets the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section (or, where applicable, paragraph (b)(1)(ii) of this section).

 

Post-assembly.

 

  • Upon completion of assembly, the equipment must be inspected by a qualified person to assure that it is configured in accordance with manufacturer equipment criteria.

 

  • Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable, a qualified person must:

 

  • Determine if a registered professional engineer (RPE) familiar with the type of equipment involved is needed to develop criteria for the equipment configuration. If an RPE is not needed, the employer must ensure that the criteria are developed by the qualified person. If an RPE is needed, the employer must ensure that they are developed by an RPE.

 

  • Determine if the equipment meets the criteria developed in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

 

  • Equipment must not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that the equipment is configured in accordance with the applicable criteria.

 

Each shift.

 

A competent person must begin a visual inspection prior to each shift the equipment will be used, which must be completed before or during that shift.

 

The inspection must consist of observation for apparent deficiencies. Taking apart equipment components and booming down is not required as part of this inspection unless the results of the visual inspection or trial operation indicate that further investigation necessitating taking apart equipment components or booming down is needed. Determinations made in conducting the inspection must be reassessed in light of observations made during operation.  At a minimum the inspection must include all of the following:

 

  • Control mechanisms for maladjustments interfering with proper operation.

 

  • Control and drive mechanisms for apparent excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter.

 

  • Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation.

 

  • Hydraulic system for proper fluid level.

 

  • Hooks and latches for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage such as from chemicals or heat.

 

  • Wire rope reeving for compliance with the manufacturer’s specifications.

 

  • Wire rope, in accordance with § 1926.1413(a).

 

  • Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of apparent excessive deterioration, dirt or moisture accumulation.

 

  • Tires (when in use) for proper inflation and condition.

 

  • Ground conditions around the equipment for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers/stabilizers and supporting foundations, ground water accumulation, or similar conditions.

 

  • The equipment for level position within the tolerances specified by the equipment manufacturer’s recommendations, both before each shift and after each move and setup.

 

  • Operator cab windows for significant cracks, breaks, or other deficiencies that would hamper the operator’s view.

 

 

  • Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation.

 

  • Immediate determination must be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard, the equipment must be taken out of service until it has been corrected. See § 1926.1417.

 

  • If any deficiency in paragraph (d)(1)(xiv) of this section (safety devices/operational aids) is identified, the action specified in § 1926.1415 and § 1926.1416 must be taken prior to using the equipment.

 

Monthly

 

  • Each month the equipment is in service it must be inspected in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section (each shift).

 

  • Equipment must not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that no corrective action under paragraphs (d)(2) and (3) of this section is required.

 

Documentation

 

  • The following information must be documented and maintained by the employer that conducts the inspection:

 

  • The items checked and the results of the inspection.

 

  • The name and signature of the person who conducted the inspection and the date.

 

  • This document must be retained for a minimum of three months.

 

Annual/comprehensive.

 

  • At least every 12 months the equipment must be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section (each shift) except that the corrective action set forth in paragraphs (f)(4), (f)(5), and (f)(6) of this section must apply in place of the corrective action required by paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section.

 

  • In addition, at least every 12 months, the equipment must be inspected by a qualified person. Disassembly is required, as necessary, to complete the inspection. The equipment must be inspected for all of the following:

 

  • Equipment structure (including the boom and, if equipped, the jib):

 

  • Structural members: Deformed, cracked, or significantly corroded.

 

  • Bolts, rivets and other fasteners: loose, failed or significantly corroded.

 

  • Welds for cracks.

 

  • Sheaves and drums for cracks or significant wear.

 

  • Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers and locking devices for distortion, cracks or significant wear.

 

  • Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls and ratchets for excessive wear.

 

  • Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation (including significant inaccuracies).

 

  • Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants for safety-related problems (such as leaking exhaust and emergency shut-down feature) and conditions, and proper operation.

 

  • Chains and chain drive sprockets for excessive wear of sprockets and excessive chain stretch.

 

  • Travel steering, brakes, and locking devices, for proper operation.

 

  • Tires for damage or excessive wear.

 

  • Hydraulic, pneumatic and other pressurized hoses, fittings and tubing, as follows:

 

  • Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks.

 

  • Threaded or clamped joints for leaks.

 

  • Outer covering of the hose for blistering, abnormal deformation or other signs of failure/impending failure.

 

  • Outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting for indications of excessive abrasion or scrubbing.

 

  • Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors, as follows:

 

  • Performance indicators: Unusual noises or vibration, low operating speed, excessive heating of the fluid, low pressure.

 

  • Loose bolts or fasteners.

 

  • Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks.

 

  • Hydraulic and pneumatic valves, as follows:

 

  • Spools: Sticking, improper return to neutral, and leaks.

 

 

  • Valve housing cracks.

 

    • Relief valves:
      • Failure to reach correct pressure (if there is a manufacturer procedure for checking pressure, it must be followed).
    • Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, as follows:
      • Drifting caused by fluid leaking across the piston.
      • Rod seals and welded joints for leaks.
      • Cylinder rods for scores, nicks, or dents.
      • Case (barrel) for significant dents.
      • Rod eyes and connecting joints: Loose or deformed.
      • Outrigger or stabilizer pads/floats for excessive wear or cracks.
      • Slider pads for excessive wear or cracks.
      • Electrical components and wiring for cracked or split insulation and loose or corroded terminations.
      • Warning labels and decals originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer or otherwise required under this standard: Missing or unreadable.
    • Originally equipped operator seat (or equivalent):      Missing.
    • Operator seat: Unserviceable.
    • Originally equipped steps, ladders, handrails, guards: Missing.
    • Steps, ladders, handrails, guards: In unusable/unsafe condition.
    • This inspection must include functional testing to determine that the equipment as configured in the inspection is functioning properly.
    • If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard or, though not yet a safety hazard, needs to be monitored in the monthly inspections.
    • If the qualified person determines that a deficiency is a safety hazard, the equipment must be taken out of service until it has been corrected, except when temporary alternative measures are implemented as specified in § 1926.1416(d) or § 1926.1435(e). See § 1926.1417.
    • If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.

 

Documentation of annual/comprehensive inspection.

  • The following information must be documented, maintained, and retained for a minimum of 12 months, by the employer that conducts the inspection:

 

  • The items checked and the results of the inspection.

 

  • The name and signature of the person who conducted the inspection and the date.

 

Severe service.

  • Where the severity of use/conditions is such that there is a reasonable probability of damage or excessive wear (such as loading that may have exceeded rated capacity, shock loading that may have exceeded rated capacity, prolonged exposure to a corrosive atmosphere), the employer must stop using the equipment and a qualified person must:

 

  • Inspect the equipment for structural damage to determine if the equipment can continue to be used safely.

 

  • In light of the use/conditions determine whether any items/conditions listed in paragraph (f) of this section need to be inspected; if so, the qualified person must inspect those items/conditions.

 

  • If a deficiency is found, the employer must follow the requirements in paragraphs (f)(4) through (6) of this section.

 

Equipment not in regular use.

  • Equipment that has been idle for 3 months or more must be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (e) (Monthly) of this section before initial use.

 

  • Any part of a manufacturer’s procedures regarding inspections that relate to safe operation (such as to a safety device or operational aid, critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism) that is more comprehensive or has a more frequent schedule of inspection than the requirements of this section must be followed.

 

  • All documents produced under this section must be available, during the applicable document retention period, to all persons who conduct inspections under this section.

 

1926.1413

 

Shift inspection.

  • A competent person must begin a visual inspection prior to each shift the equipment is used, which must be completed before or during that shift. The inspection must consist of observation of wire ropes (running and standing) that are likely to be in use during the shift for apparent deficiencies, including those listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Untwisting (opening) of wire rope or booming down is not required as part of this inspection.

 

Apparent deficiencies.

 

  • Category I. Apparent deficiencies in this category include the following:

 

    • Significant distortion of the wire rope structure such as kinking, crushing, unstranding, birdcaging, signs of core failure or steel core protrusion between the outer strands.
    • Significant corrosion.
    • Electric arc damage (from a source other than power lines) or heat damage.
    • Improperly applied end connections.
    • Significantly corroded, cracked, bent, or worn end connections (such as from severe service).

 

  • Category II. Apparent deficiencies in this category are:

 

    • Visible broken wires, as follows:
      • In running wire ropes: Six randomly distributed broken wires in one rope lay or three broken wires in one strand in one rope lay, where a rope lay is the length along the rope in which one strand makes a complete revolution around the rope.
      • In rotation resistant ropes: Two randomly distributed broken wires in six rope diameters or four randomly distributed broken wires in 30 rope diameters.
      • In pendants or standing wire ropes: More than two broken wires in one rope lay located in rope beyond end connections and/or more than one broken wire in a rope lay located at an end connection.
      • A diameter reduction of more than 5% from nominal diameter.

 

  • Category III. Apparent deficiencies in this category include the following:

 

    • In rotation resistant wire rope, core protrusion or other distortion indicating core failure.
    • Prior electrical contact with a power line.
    • A broken strand.

 

Critical review items

  • The competent person must give particular attention to all of the following:

 

    • Rotation resistant wire rope in use.
    • Wire rope being used for boom hoists and luffing hoists, particularly at reverse bends.
    • Wire rope at flange points, crossover points and repetitive pickup points on drums.
    • Wire rope at or near terminal ends.
    • Wire rope in contact with saddles, equalizer sheaves or other sheaves where rope travel is limited.

 

Removal from service.

  • If a deficiency in Category I (see paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section) is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard, operations involving use of the wire rope in question must be prohibited until:

 

    • The wire rope is replaced (see § 1926.1417), or
    • If the deficiency is localized, the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two; the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. If a rope is shortened under this paragraph, the employer must ensure that the drum will still have two wraps of wire when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position.

 

  • If a deficiency in Category II (see paragraph (a)(2)(ii) of this section) is identified, operations involving use of the wire rope in question must be prohibited until:

 

    • The employer complies with the wire rope manufacturer’s established criterion for removal from service or a different criterion that the wire rope manufacturer has approved in writing for that specific wire rope (see § 1926.1417),
    • The wire rope is replaced (see § 1926.1417), or

 

  • If the deficiency is localized, the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two; the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. If a rope is shortened under this paragraph, the employer must ensure that the drum will still have two wraps of wire when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position.

 

  • If a deficiency in Category III is identified, operations involving use of the wire rope in question must be prohibited until:

 

    • The wire rope is replaced (see § 1926.1417), or

 

  • If the deficiency (other than power line contact) is localized, the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two; the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. Repair of wire rope that contacted an energized power line is also prohibited. If a rope is shortened under this paragraph, the employer must ensure that the drum will still have two wraps of wire when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position.

 

  • Where a wire rope is required to be removed from service under this section, either the equipment (as a whole) or the hoist with that wire rope must be tagged-out, in accordance with § 1926.1417(f)(1), until the wire rope is repaired or replaced.

 

Monthly inspection.

 

  • Each month an inspection must be conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) (shift inspection) of this section.

 

  • The inspection must include any deficiencies that the qualified person who conducts the annual inspection determines under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section must be monitored.

 

  • Wire ropes on equipment must not be used until an inspection under this paragraph demonstrates that no corrective action under paragraph (a)(4) of this section is required.

 

  • The inspection must be documented according to § 1926.1412(e)(3) (monthly inspection documentation).

 

Annual/comprehensive.

 

  • At least every 12 months, wire ropes in use on equipment must be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section (shift inspection).

 

  • In addition, at least every 12 months, the wire ropes in use on equipment must be inspected by a qualified person, as follows:

 

    •  must be for deficiencies of the types listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

 

    • The inspection must be complete and thorough, covering the surface of the entire length of the wire ropes, with particular attention given to all of the following:

 

      • Critical review items listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
      • Those sections that are normally hidden during shift and monthly inspections.
      • Wire rope subject to reverse bends.
      • Wire rope passing over sheaves.

 

Exception:

In the event an inspection under paragraph (c)(2) of this section is not feasible due to existing set-up and configuration of the equipment (such as where an assist crane is needed) or due to site conditions (such as a dense urban setting), such inspections must be conducted as soon as it becomes feasible, but no longer than an additional 6 months for running ropes and, for standing ropes, at the time of disassembly.

 

  • If a deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard.

 

  • If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard, operations involving use of the wire rope in question must be prohibited until:

 

    • The wire rope is replaced (see § 1926.1417), or

 

    • If the deficiency is localized, the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two; the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. If a rope is shortened under this paragraph, the employer must ensure that the drum will still have two wraps of wire when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position.

 

  • If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.

 

  • The inspection must be documented according to § 1926.1412(f)(7) (annual/comprehensive inspection documentation).

 

  • Rope lubricants that are of the type that hinder inspection must not be used.

 

  • All documents produced under this section must be available, during the applicable document retention period, to all persons who conduct inspections under this section.

 

1926.1414

 

Original equipment wire rope and replacement wire rope must be selected and installed in accordance with the requirements of this section. Selection of replacement wire rope must be in accordance with the recommendations of the wire rope manufacturer, the equipment manufacturer, or a qualified person.

 

Wire rope design criteria:

Wire rope (other than rotation resistant rope) must comply with either Option (1) or Option (2) of this section, as follows:

 

  • Option (1).
    • Wire rope must comply with section 5-1.7.1 of ASME B30.5-2004 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) except that section’s paragraph (c) must not apply.

 

  • Option (2).
    • Wire rope must be designed to have, in relation to the equipment’s rated capacity, a sufficient minimum breaking force and design factor so that compliance with the applicable inspection provisions in § 1926.1413 will be an effective means of preventing sudden rope failure.

 

 

  • Wire rope must be compatible with the safe functioning of the equipment.

 

Boom hoist reeving.

 

  • Fiber core ropes must not be used for boom hoist reeving, except for derricks.1926.1414(d)(2)

 

  • Rotation resistant ropes must be used for boom hoist reeving only where the requirements of paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section are met.

 

Rotation resistant ropes.

 

Definitions.

 

  • Type I rotation resistant wire rope (“Type I”).
    • Type I rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have little or no tendency to rotate or, if guided, transmits little or no torque. It has at least 15 outer strands and comprises an assembly of at least three layers of strands laid helically over a center in two operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer.

 

  • Type II rotation resistant wire rope (“Type II”).
    • Type II rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have significant resistance to rotation. It has at least 10 outer strands and comprises an assembly of two or more layers of strands laid helically over a center in two or three operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer.

 

  • Type III rotation resistant wire rope (“Type III”).
    • Type III rotation resistant rope is stranded rope constructed to have limited resistance to rotation. It has no more than nine outer strands, and comprises an assembly of two layers of strands laid helically over a center in two operations. The direction of lay of the outer strands is opposite to that of the underlying layer.

 

Requirements.

 

  • Types II and III with an operating design factor of less than 5 must not be used for duty cycle or repetitive lifts.

 

  • Rotation resistant ropes (including Types I, II and III) must have an operating design factor of no less than 3.5.

 

  • Type I must have an operating design factor of no less than 5, except where the wire rope manufacturer and the equipment manufacturer approves the design factor, in writing.

 

  • Types II and III must have an operating design factor of no less than 5, except where the requirements of paragraph (e)(3) of this section are met.

 

  • When Types II and III with an operating design factor of less than 5 are used (for non-duty cycle, non-repetitive lifts), the following requirements must be met for each lifting operation:

 

  • A qualified person must inspect the rope in accordance with § 1926.1413(a). The rope must be used only if the qualified person determines that there are no deficiencies constituting a hazard. In making this determination, more than one broken wire in any one rope lay must be considered a hazard.

 

  • Operations must be conducted in such a manner and at such speeds as to minimize dynamic effects.

 

  • Each lift made under § 1926.1414(e)(3) must be recorded in the monthly and annual inspection documents. Such prior uses must be considered by the qualified person in determining whether to use the rope again.

 

Additional requirements for rotation resistant ropes for boom hoist reeving.

 

  • Rotation resistant ropes must not be used for boom hoist reeving, except where the requirements of paragraph (e)(4)(ii) of this section are met.

 

  • Rotation resistant ropes may be used as boom hoist reeving when load hoists are used as boom hoists for attachments such as luffing attachments or boom and mast attachment systems. Under these conditions, all of the following requirements must be met:

 

  • The drum must provide a first layer rope pitch diameter of not less than 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used.

 

  • The requirements in § 1926.1426(a) (irrespective of the date of manufacture of the equipment), and § 1926.1426(b).

 

  • The requirements in ASME B30.5-2004 sections 5-1.3.2(a), (a)(2) through (a)(4), (b) and (d) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) except that the minimum pitch diameter for sheaves used in multiple rope reeving is 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used (instead of the value of 16 specified in section 5-1.3.2(d)).

 

  • All sheaves used in the boom hoist reeving system must have a rope pitch diameter of not less than 18 times the nominal diameter of the rope used.

 

  • The operating design factor for the boom hoist reeving system must be not less than five.

 

  • The operating design factor for these ropes must be the total minimum breaking force of all parts of rope in the system divided by the load imposed on the rope system when supporting the static weights of the structure and the load within the equipment’s rated capacity.

 

  • When provided, a power-controlled lowering system must be capable of handling rated capacities and speeds as specified by the manufacturer.

 

  • Wire rope clips used in conjunction with wedge sockets must be attached to the unloaded dead end of the rope only, except that the use of devices specifically designed for dead-ending rope in a wedge socket is permitted.

 

  • Socketing must be done in the manner specified by the manufacturer of the wire rope or fitting.

 

  • Prior to cutting a wire rope, seizings must be placed on each side of the point to be cut. The length and number of seizings must be in accordance with the wire rope manufacturer’s instructions.

 

1926.1415

 

Safety devices.

The following safety devices are required on all equipment covered by this subpart, unless otherwise specified:

 

Crane level indicator.

  • The equipment must have a crane level indicator that is either built into the equipment or is available on the equipment.

 

  • If a built-in crane level indicator is not working properly, it must be tagged-out or removed. If a removable crane level indicator is not working properly, it must be removed.

 

  • This requirement does not apply to portal cranes, derricks, floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges, pontoons, vessels or other means of flotation.

 

  • Boom stops, except for derricks and hydraulic booms.

 

  • Jib stops (if a jib is attached), except for derricks.

 

  • Equipment with foot pedal brakes must have locks.

 

  • Hydraulic outrigger jacks and hydraulic stabilizer jacks must have an integral holding device/check valve.

 

  • Equipment on rails must have rail clamps and rail stops, except for portal cranes.

 

Horn

 

  • The equipment must have a horn that is either built into the equipment or is on the equipment and immediately available to the operator.

 

  • If a built-in horn is not working properly, it must be tagged-out or removed. If a removable horn is not working properly, it must be removed.

 

Proper operation required.

  • Operations must not begin unless all of the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during operations, the operator must safely stop operations. If any of the devices listed in this section are not in proper working order, the equipment must be taken out of service and operations must not resume until the device is again working properly. See § 1926.1417 (Operation). Alternative measures are not permitted to be used.

 

1926.1416

The devices listed in this section (“listed operational aids”) are required on all equipment covered by this subpart, unless otherwise specified.

 

The requirements in paragraphs (d)(3), (e)(1), and (e)(4) of this section apply only to those digger derricks manufactured after November 8, 2011.

  • Operations must not begin unless the listed operational aids are in proper working order, except where an operational aid is being repaired the employer uses the specified temporary alternative measures. The time periods permitted for repairing defective operational aids are specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section. More protective alternative measures specified by the crane/derrick manufacturer, if any, must be followed.

 

  • If a listed operational aid stops working properly during operations, the operator must safely stop operations until the temporary alternative measures are implemented or the device is again working properly. If a replacement part is no longer available, the use of a substitute device that performs the same type of function is permitted and is not considered a modification under § 1926.1434.

 

Category I operational aids and alternative measures.

  • Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly must be repaired no later than 7 calendar days after the deficiency occurs. Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 calendar days of the occurrence of the deficiency, the repair must be completed within 7 calendar days of receipt of the parts. See § 1926.1417(j) for additional requirements.

 

Boom hoist limiting device.

 

  • For equipment manufactured after December 16, 1969, a boom hoist limiting device is required.

 

Temporary alternative measures (use at least one).

One or more of the following methods must be used:

 

    • Use a boom angle indicator.

 

    • Clearly mark the boom hoist cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to keep the boom within the minimum allowable radius. In addition, install mirrors or remote video cameras and displays if necessary for the operator to see the mark.

 

    • Clearly mark the boom hoist cable (so that it can easily be seen by a spotter) at a point that will give the spotter sufficient time to signal the operator and have the operator stop the hoist to keep the boom within the minimum allowable radius.

 

  • If the equipment was manufactured on or before December 16, 1969, and is not equipped with a boom hoist limiting device, at least one of the measures in paragraphs (d)(1)(i)(A) through (C) of this section must be used.

 

Luffing jib limiting device.

  • Equipment with a luffing jib must have a luffing jib limiting device. Temporary alternative measures are the same as in paragraph (d)(1)(i) of this section, except to limit the movement of the luffing jib rather than the boom hoist.

 

Anti two-blocking device.

 

  • Telescopic boom cranes manufactured after February 28, 1992, must be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) must prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur.Temporary alternative measures:
    • Clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a spotter when extending the boom.

 

Lattice boom cranes.

 

Lattice boom cranes manufactured after Feb 28, 1992,

  • must be equipped with a device that either automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component), or warns the operator in time for the operator to prevent two-blocking.
  • The device must prevent such damage/failure or provide adequate warning for all points where two-blocking could occur.

 

Lattice boom cranes and derricks manufactured after November 8, 2011

  • must be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) must prevent such damage/failure at all points where two-blocking could occur.

 

Exception. The requirements in paragraphs (d)(3)(ii)(A) and (B) of this section do not apply to such lattice boom equipment when used for dragline, clamshell (grapple), magnet, drop ball, container handling, concrete bucket, marine operations that do not involve hoisting personnel, and pile driving work.

 

Temporary alternative measures.

    • Clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter.

 

Articulating cranes manufactured after December 31, 1999, that are equipped with a load hoist

  • must be equipped with a device that automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device must prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur.

 

Temporary alternative measures:

    • When two-blocking could only occur with movement of the load hoist, clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter. When two-blocking could occur without movement of the load hoist, clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a spotter when extending the boom.

 

Category II operational aids and alternative measures.

  • Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly must be repaired no later than 30 calendar days after the deficiency occurs.

 

    • Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 calendar days of the occurrence of the deficiency, and the part is not received in time to complete the repair in 30 calendar days, the repair must be completed within 7 calendar days of receipt of the parts. See § 1926.1417(j) for additional requirements.

 

Boom angle or radius indicator.

  • The equipment must have a boom angle or radius indicator readable from the operator’s station.

 

Temporary alternative measures:

    • Radii or boom angle must be determined by measuring the radii or boom angle with a measuring device.

 

  • Jib angle indicator if the equipment has a luffing jib.

Temporary alternative measures:

    • Radii or jib angle must be determined by ascertaining the main boom angle and then measuring the radii or jib angle with a measuring device.

 

  • Boom length indicator if the equipment has a telescopic boom, except where the rated capacity is independent of the boom length.

Temporary alternative measures.

    • One or more of the following methods must be used:
      • Mark the boom with measured marks to calculate boom length,
      • Calculate boom length from boom angle and radius measurements,
      • Measure the boom with a measuring device.

 

Load weighing and similar devices.

 

  • Equipment (other than derricks and articulating cranes) manufactured after March 29, 2003 with a rated capacity over 6,000 pounds must have at least one of the following: load weighing device, load moment (or rated capacity) indicator, or load moment (or rated capacity) limiter. Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load’s manufacturer) or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift.

 

  • Articulating cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must have at least one of the following:
    • automatic overload prevention device, load weighing device, load moment (or rated capacity) indicator, or load moment (rated capacity) limiter. Temporary alternative measures: The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load’s manufacturer) or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight). This information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift.

 

  • The following devices are required on equipment manufactured after November 8, 2011:
    • Outrigger/stabilizer position (horizontal beam extension) sensor/monitor if the equipment has outriggers or stabilizers.
      • Temporary alternative measures: The operator must verify that the position of the outriggers or stabilizers is correct (in accordance with manufacturer procedures) before beginning operations requiring outrigger or stabilizer deployment.

 

    • Hoist drum rotation indicator if the equipment has a hoist drum not visible from the operator’s station.
      • Temporary alternative measures: Mark the drum to indicate the rotation of the drum. In addition, install mirrors or remote video cameras and displays if necessary for the operator to see the mark.

 

1926.1417

 

The employer must comply with all manufacturer procedures applicable to the operational functions of equipment, including its use with attachments.

 

Unavailable operation procedures.

  • Where the manufacturer procedures are unavailable, the employer must develop and ensure compliance with all procedures necessary for the safe operation of the equipment and attachments.

 

  • Procedures for the operational controls must be developed by a qualified person. 1926.1417(b)(3)
  • Procedures related to the capacity of the equipment must be developed and signed by a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.

 

Accessibility of procedures.

 

  • The procedures applicable to the operation of the equipment, including rated capacities (load charts), recommended operating speeds, special hazard warnings, instructions, and operator’s manual, must be readily available in the cab at all times for use by the operator.

 

  • Where rated capacities are available in the cab only in electronic form: In the event of a failure which makes the rated capacities inaccessible, the operator must immediately cease operations or follow safe shut-down procedures until the rated capacities (in electronic or other form) are available.

 

  • The operator must not engage in any practice or activity that diverts his/her attention while actually engaged in operating the equipment, such as the use of cellular phones (other than when used for signal communications).

 

Leaving the equipment unattended.

 

The operator must not leave the controls while the load is suspended, except where all of the following are met:

  • The operator remains adjacent to the equipment and is not engaged in any other duties.
  • The load is to be held suspended for a period of time exceeding normal lifting operations.
  • The competent person determines that it is safe to do so and implements measures necessary to restrain the boom hoist and telescoping, load, swing, and outrigger or stabilizer functions.
  • Barricades or caution lines, and notices, are erected to prevent all employees from entering the fall zone. No employees, including those listed in § § 1926.1425(b)(1) through (3), § 1926.1425(d) or § 1926.1425(e), are permitted in the fall zone.

 

  • The provisions in § 1926.1417(e)(1) do not apply to working gear (such as slings, spreader bars, ladders, and welding machines) where the weight of the working gear is negligible relative to the lifting capacity of the equipment as positioned, and the working gear is suspended over an area other than an entrance or exit.

 

Tag-out.

 

Tagging out of service equipment/functions.

  • Where the employer has taken the equipment out of service, a tag must be placed in the cab stating that the equipment is out of service and is not to be used.
  • Where the employer has taken a function(s) out of service, a tag must be placed in a conspicuous position stating that the function is out of service and is not to be used.

 

Response to “do not operate”/tag-out signs.

  • If there is a warning (tag-out or maintenance/do not operate) sign on the equipment or starting control, the operator must not activate the switch or start the equipment until the sign has been removed by a person authorized to remove it, or until the operator has verified that:
    • No one is servicing, working on, or otherwise in a dangerous position on the machine.
    • The equipment has been repaired and is working properly.

 

  • If there is a warning (tag-out or maintenance/do not operate) sign on any other switch or control, the operator must not activate that switch or control until the sign has been removed by a person authorized to remove it, or until the operator has verified that the requirements in paragraphs (f)(2)(i)(A) and (B) of this section have been met.

 

  • Before starting the engine, the operator must verify that all controls are in the proper starting position and that all personnel are in the clear.

 

Storm warning.

  • When a local storm warning has been issued, the competent person must determine whether it is necessary to implement manufacturer recommendations for securing the equipment.

 

  • If equipment adjustments or repairs are necessary:
    • The operator must, in writing, promptly inform the person designated by the employer to receive such information and, where there are successive shifts, to the next operator; and
    • The employer must notify all affected employees, at the beginning of each shift, of the necessary adjustments or repairs and all alternative measures.

 

  • Safety devices and operational aids must not be used as a substitute for the exercise of professional judgment by the operator.

 

  • If the competent person determines that there is a slack rope condition requiring re-spooling of the rope, it must be verified (before starting to lift) that the rope is seated on the drum and in the sheaves as the slack is removed.

 

  • The competent person must adjust the equipment and/or operations to address the effect of wind, ice, and snow on equipment stability and rated capacity.

 

Compliance with rated capacity.

 

  • The equipment must not be operated in excess of its rated capacity.
  • The operator must not be required to operate the equipment in a manner that would violate paragraph (o)(1) of this section.

 

Load weight.

  • The operator must verify that the load is within the rated capacity of the equipment by at least one of the following methods:
  • The weight of the load must be determined from a source recognized by the industry (such as the load’s manufacturer), or by a calculation method recognized by the industry (such as calculating a steel beam from measured dimensions and a known per foot weight), or by other equally reliable means. In addition, when requested by the operator, this information must be provided to the operator prior to the lift; or
  • The operator must begin hoisting the load to determine, using a load weighing device, load moment indicator, rated capacity indicator, or rated capacity limiter, if it exceeds 75 percent of the maximum rated capacity at the longest radius that will be used during the lift operation. If it does, the operator must not proceed with the lift until he/she verifies the weight of the load in accordance with paragraph (o)(3)(i) of this section.

 

  • The boom or other parts of the equipment must not contact any obstruction.

 

  • The equipment must not be used to drag or pull loads sideways.

 

  • On wheel-mounted equipment, no loads must be lifted over the front area, except as permitted by the manufacturer.

 

  • The operator must test the brakes each time a load that is 90% or more of the maximum line pull is handled by lifting the load a few inches and applying the brakes. In duty cycle and repetitive lifts where each lift is 90% or more of the maximum line pull, this requirement applies to the first lift but not to successive lifts.

 

  • Neither the load nor the boom must be lowered below the point where less than two full wraps of rope remain on their respective drums.

 

Traveling with a load.

 

  • Traveling with a load is prohibited if the practice is prohibited by the manufacturer.
  • Where traveling with a load, the employer must ensure that:
    • A competent person supervises the operation, determines if it is necessary to reduce rated capacity, and makes determinations regarding load position, boom location, ground support, travel route, overhead obstructions, and speed of movement necessary to ensure safety.
    • The determinations of the competent person required in paragraph (u)(2)(i) of this section are implemented.
  • For equipment with tires, tire pressure specified by the manufacturer is maintained.
  • Rotational speed of the equipment must be such that the load does not swing out beyond the radius at which it can be controlled.
  • A tag or restraint line must be used if necessary to prevent rotation of the load that would be hazardous.
  • The brakes must be adjusted in accordance with manufacturer procedures to prevent unintended movement.
  • The operator must obey a stop (or emergency stop) signal, irrespective of who gives it.

 

 

Counterweight/ballast.

 

  • The following applies to equipment other than tower cranes:

 

  • Equipment must not be operated without the counterweight or ballast in place as specified by the manufacturer.

 

  • The maximum counterweight or ballast specified by the manufacturer for the equipment must not be exceeded.

 

 

1926.1418

  • Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined that safety has been assured.

 

1926.1419 – signal person

A signal person must be provided in each of the following situations:

 

  • The point of operation, meaning the load travel or the area near or at load placement, is not in full view of the operator.

 

  • When the equipment is traveling, the view in the direction of travel is obstructed.

 

  • Due to site specific safety concerns, either the operator or the person handling the load determines that it is necessary.

 

Types of signals.

  • Signals to operators must be by hand, voice, audible, or new signals.

 

Hand signals.

 

  • When using hand signals, the Standard Method must be used (see Appendix A of this subpart).
  • Exception: Where use of the Standard Method for hand signals is infeasible, or where an operation or use of an attachment is not covered in the Standard Method, non-standard hand signals may be used in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

 

Non-standard hand signals.

  • When using non-standard hand signals, the signal person, operator, and lift director (where there is one) must contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the non-standard hand signals that will be used.

 

New signals.

  • Signals other than hand, voice, or audible signals may be used where the employer demonstrates that:

 

  • The new signals provide at least equally effective communication as voice, audible, or Standard Method hand signals, or

 

  • The new signals comply with a national consensus standard that provides at least equally effective communication as voice, audible, or Standard Method hand signals.

 

Suitability.

  • The signals used (hand, voice, audible, or new), and means of transmitting the signals to the operator (such as direct line of sight, video, radio, etc.), must be appropriate for the site conditions.

 

  • During operations requiring signals, the ability to transmit signals between the operator and signal person must be maintained. If that ability is interrupted at any time, the operator must safely stop operations requiring signals until it is reestablished and a proper signal is given and understood.

 

  • If the operator becomes aware of a safety problem and needs to communicate with the signal person, the operator must safely stop operations. Operations must not resume until the operator and signal person agree that the problem has been resolved.

 

  • Only one person may give signals to a crane/derrick at a time, except in circumstances covered by paragraph (j) of this section.

 

  • Anyone who becomes aware of a safety problem must alert the operator or signal person by giving the stop or emergency stop signal. (Note: § 1926.1417(y) requires the operator to obey a stop or emergency stop signal).

 

  • All directions given to the operator by the signal person must be given from the operator’s direction perspective.

 

Communication with multiple cranes/derricks.

  • Where a signal person(s) is in communication with more than one crane/derrick, a system must be used for identifying the crane/derrick each signal is for, as follows:
    • for each signal, prior to giving the function/direction, the signal person must identify the crane/derrick the signal is for, or
    • must use an equally effective method of identifying which crane/derrick the signal is for.

 

1926.1420

 

  • The device(s) used to transmit signals must be tested on site before beginning operations to ensure that the signal transmission is effective, clear, and reliable.

 

  • Signal transmission must be through a dedicated channel, except:

 

  • Multiple cranes/derricks and one or more signal persons may share a dedicated channel for the purpose of coordinating operations.

 

  • Where a crane is being operated on or adjacent to railroad tracks, and the actions of the crane operator need to be coordinated with the movement of other equipment or trains on the same or adjacent tracks.

 

  • The operator’s reception of signals must be by a hands-free system.

 

1926.1421

 

  • Prior to beginning operations, the operator, signal person and lift director (if there is one), must contact each other and agree on the voice signals that will be used. Once the voice signals are agreed upon, these workers need not meet again to discuss voice signals unless another worker is added or substituted, there is confusion about the voice signals, or a voice signal is to be changed.

 

  • Each voice signal must contain the following three elements, given in the following order: function (such as hoist, boom, etc.), direction; distance and/or speed; function, stop command.

 

  • The operator, signal person and lift director (if there is one), must be able to effectively communicate in the language used.

 

1926.1422

Hand signal charts must be either posted on the equipment or conspicuously posted in the vicinity of the hoisting operations.

 

1926.1423    Application.

 

Boom walkways.

  • Equipment manufactured after November 8, 2011 with lattice booms must be equipped with walkways on the boom(s) if the vertical profile of the boom (from cord centerline to cord centerline) is 6 or more feet.

 

Boom walkway criteria.

  • The walkways must be at least 12 inches wide.
  • Guardrails, railings and other permanent fall protection attachments along walkways are:
    • Not required.
    • Prohibited on booms supported by pendant ropes or bars if the guardrails/railings/attachments could be snagged by the ropes or bars.
    • Prohibited if of the removable type (designed to be installed and removed each time the boom is assembled/disassembled).
    • Where not prohibited, guardrails or railings may be of any height up to, but not more than, 45 inches.

 

Steps, handholds, ladders, grabrails, guardrails and railings.

  • Section 1926.502(b) does not apply to equipment covered by this subpart.

 

  • The employer must maintain in good condition originally-equipped steps, handholds, ladders and guardrails/railings/grabrails.

 

  • Equipment manufactured after November 8, 2011 must be equipped so as to provide safe access and egress between the ground and the operator work station(s), including the forward and rear positions, by the provision of devices such as steps, handholds, ladders, and guardrails/railings/grabrails. These devices must meet the following criteria:
    • Steps, handholds, ladders and guardrails/railings/grabrails must meet the criteria of SAE J185 (May 2003) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) or ISO 11660-2:1994(E) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) except where infeasible.
    • Walking/stepping surfaces, except for crawler treads, must have slip-resistant features/properties (such as diamond plate metal, strategically placed grip tape, expanded metal, or slip-resistant paint).

 

    • Steps, handholds, ladders, and guardrails/railings/grabrails must meet the criteria of ISO 11660-1:2008(E) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) and ISO 11660-3:2008(E) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) or SAE J185 (May 2003) (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6) except where infeasible.

 

    • Walking/stepping surfaces must have slip-resistant features/properties (such as diamond plate metal, strategically placed grip tape, expanded metal, or slip-resistant paint).

 

Personal fall arrest and fall restraint systems.

  • Personal fall arrest system components must be used in personal fall arrest and fall restraint systems and must conform to the criteria in § 1926.502(d) except that § 1926.502(d)(15) does not apply to components used in personal fall arrest and fall restraint systems. Either body belts or body harnesses must be used in personal fall arrest and fall restraint systems.

 

  • For non-assembly/disassembly work, the employer must provide and ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 6 feet above a lower level as follows:

 

  • When moving point-to-point:

 

  • On non-lattice booms (whether horizontal or not horizontal).

 

  • On lattice booms that are not horizontal.

 

  • On horizontal lattice booms where the fall distance is 15 feet or more.

 

  • While at a work station on any part of the equipment (including the boom, of any type), except when the employee is at or near draw-works (when the equipment is running), in the cab, or on the deck.

 

  • For assembly/disassembly work, the employer must provide and ensure the use of fall protection equipment for employees who are on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet above a lower level, except when the employee is at or near draw-works (when the equipment is running), in the cab, or on the deck.

 

Anchorage criteria.

  • Sections 1926.502(d)(15) and 1926.502(e)(2) apply to equipment covered by this subpart only to the extent delineated in paragraph (g)(2) of this section.

 

Anchorages for personal fall arrest and positioning device systems.

  • Personal fall arrest systems must be anchored to any apparently substantial part of the equipment unless a competent person, from a visual inspection, without an engineering analysis, would conclude that the criteria in § 1926.502(d)(15) would not be met.

 

  • Positioning device systems must be anchored to any apparently substantial part of the equipment unless a competent person, from a visual inspection, without an engineering analysis, would conclude that the criteria in § 1926.502(e)(2) would not be met.

 

  • Attachable anchor devices (portable anchor devices that are attached to the equipment) must meet the anchorage criteria in § 1926.502(d)(15) for personal fall arrest systems and § 1926.502(e)(2) for positioning device systems.

 

Anchorages for fall restraint systems.

  • Fall restraint systems must be anchored to any part of the equipment that is capable of withstanding twice the maximum load that an employee may impose on it during reasonably anticipated conditions of use.

 

Anchoring to the load line.

  • A personal fall arrest system is permitted to be anchored to the crane/derrick’s hook (or other part of the load line) where all of the following requirements are met:

 

  • A qualified person has determined that the set-up and rated capacity of the crane/derrick (including the hook, load line and rigging) meets or exceeds the requirements in § 1926.502(d)(15).

 

  • The equipment operator must be at the work site and informed that the equipment is being used for this purpose.

 

  • No load is suspended from the load line when the personal fall arrest system is anchored to the crane/derrick’s hook (or other part of the load line).

 

Training.

  • The employer must train each employee who may be exposed to fall hazards while on, or hoisted by, equipment covered by this subpart on all of the following:

 

  • the requirements in this subpart that address fall protection.

 

  • the applicable requirements in § § 1926.500 and 1926.502.

 

1926.1424

 

1926.1425

  • Where available, hoisting routes that minimize the exposure of employees to hoisted loads must be used, to the extent consistent with public safety.
  • While the operator is not moving a suspended load, no employee must be within the fall zone, except for employees:
    • Engaged in hooking, unhooking or guiding a load;
    • Engaged in the initial attachment of the load to a component or structure; or
    • Operating a concrete hopper or concrete bucket.
  • When employees are engaged in hooking, unhooking, or guiding the load, or in the initial connection of a load to a component or structure and are within the fall zone, all of the following criteria must be met:
    • The materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement.
    • Hooks with self-closing latches or their equivalent must be used. Exception: “J” hooks are permitted to be used for setting wooden trusses.
    • The materials must be rigged by a qualified rigger.

 

Receiving a load.

  • Only employees needed to receive a load are permitted to be within the fall zone when a load is being landed.
  • During a tilt-up or tilt-down operation:
    • No employee must be directly under the load.
    • Only employees essential to the operation are permitted in the fall zone (but not directly under the load). An employee is essential to the operation if the employee is conducting one of the following operations and the employer can demonstrate it is infeasible for the employee to perform that operation from outside the fall zone:
      • (1) Physically guide the load; (2) closely monitor and give instructions regarding the load’s movement; or (3) either detach it from or initially attach it to another component or structure (such as, but not limited to, making an initial connection or installing bracing).Note: Boom free fall is prohibited when an employee is in the fall zone of the boom or load, and load line free fall is prohibited when an employee is directly under the load; see § 1926.1426.

 

1926.1426

 

Boom free fall prohibitions.

  • The use of equipment in which the boom is designed to free fall (live boom) is prohibited in each of the following circumstances:

 

  • An employee is in the fall zone of the boom or load.

 

  • An employee is being hoisted.

 

  • The load or boom is directly over a power line, or over any part of the area extending the Table A of § 1926.1408 clearance distance to each side of the power line; or any part of the area extending the Table A clearance distance to each side of the power line is within the radius of vertical travel of the boom or the load.

 

  • The load is over a shaft, except where there are no employees in the shaft.

 

  • The load is over a cofferdam, except where there are no employees in the fall zone of the boom or the load.

 

  • Lifting operations are taking place in a refinery or tank farm.

 

  • The use of equipment in which the boom is designed to free fall (live boom) is permitted only where none of the circumstances listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are present and:

 

  • The equipment was manufactured prior to October 31, 1984; or

 

  • The equipment is a floating crane/derrick or a land crane/derrick on a vessel/flotation device.

 

Preventing boom free fall.

  • Where the use of equipment with a boom that is designed to free fall (live boom) is prohibited, the boom hoist must have a secondary mechanism or device designed to prevent the boom from falling in the event the primary system used to hold or regulate the boom hoist fails, as follows:

 

  • Friction drums must have:

 

  • A friction clutch and, in addition, a braking device, to allow for controlled boom lowering.

 

  • A secondary braking or locking device, which is manually or automatically engaged, to back-up the primary brake while the boom is held (such as a secondary friction brake or a ratchet and pawl device).

 

  • Hydraulic drums must have an integrally mounted holding device or internal static brake to prevent boom hoist movement in the event of hydraulic failure.

 

  • Neither clutches nor hydraulic motors must be considered brake or locking devices for purposes of this subpart.

 

  • Hydraulic boom cylinders must have an integrally mounted holding device.

 

Preventing uncontrolled retraction.

  • Hydraulic telescoping booms must have an integrally mounted holding device to prevent the boom from retracting in the event of hydraulic failure.

 

Load line free fall.

  • In each of the following circumstances, controlled load lowering is required and free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited:

 

    • An employee is directly under the load.
    • An employee is being hoisted.
    • The load is directly over a power line, or over any part of the area extending the Table A of § 1926.1408 clearance distance to each side of the power line; or any part of the area extending the Table A of § 1926.1408 clearance distance to each side of the power line is within the radius of vertical travel of the load.
    • The load is over a shaft.
    • The load is over a cofferdam, except where there are no employees in the fall zone of the load.

 

1926.1427

  • The employer must ensure that, prior to operating any equipment covered under subpart CC, the person is operating the equipment during a training period in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section, or the operator is qualified or certified to operate the equipment in accordance with the following:
    • When a non-military government entity issues operator licenses for equipment covered under subpart CC, and that government licensing program meets the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2) and (j) of this section, the equipment operator must either be:
      • Licensed by that government entity for operation of equipment within that entity’s jurisdiction; or
      • qualified in compliance with paragraph (d) of this section.
      • Where paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not applicable, the certification or qualification must comply with one of the options in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section.
    • Exceptions: Operator qualification or certification under this section is not required for operators of derricks (see § 1926.1436), sideboom cranes (see § 1926.1440), or equipment with a maximum manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less (see § 1926.1441).
  • Whenever operator qualification or certification is required under § 1926.1427, the employer must provide the qualification or certification at no cost to operators who are employed by the employer on November 8, 2010.

Option (1): Certification by an accredited crane operator testing organization.

  • For a testing organization to be considered accredited to certify operators under this subpart, it must:
  • Be accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency based on that agency’s determination that industry recognized criteria for written testing materials, practical examinations, test administration, grading, facilities/equipment and personnel have been met.
  • Administer written and practical tests that:
  • Assess the operator applicant regarding, at a minimum, the knowledge and skills listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.
  • Provide different levels of certification based on equipment capacity and type.
  • Have procedures for operators to re-apply and be re-tested in the event an operator applicant fails a test or is decertified.
  • Have testing procedures for re-certification designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.
  • Have its accreditation reviewed by the nationally recognized accrediting agency at least every three years.
  • An operator will be deemed qualified to operate a particular piece of equipment if the operator is certified under paragraph (b) of this section for that type and capacity of equipment or for higher-capacity equipment of that type. If no accredited testing agency offers certification examinations for a particular type and/or capacity of equipment, an operator will be deemed qualified to operate that equipment if the operator has been certified for the type/capacity that is most similar to that equipment and for which a certification examination is available. The operator’s certificate must state the type/capacity of equipment for which the operator is certified.
  • A certification issued under this option is portable and meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.
  • A certification issued under this paragraph is valid for 5 years.

Option (2):

Qualification by an audited employer program. The employer’s qualification of its employee must meet the following requirements:

  • The written and practical tests must be either:
  • Developed by an accredited crane operator testing organization (see paragraph (b) of this section); or
  • Approved by an auditor in accordance with the following requirements:
  • The auditor is certified to evaluate such tests by an accredited crane operator testing organization (see paragraph (b) of this section).
  • The auditor is not an employee of the employer.
  • The approval must be based on the auditor’s determination that the written and practical tests meet nationally recognized test development criteria and are valid and reliable in assessing the operator applicants regarding, at a minimum, the knowledge and skills listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.
  • The audit must be conducted in accordance with nationally recognized auditing standards.

 

Administration of tests.

  • The written and practical tests must be administered under circumstances approved by the auditor as meeting nationally recognized test administration standards.
  • The auditor must be certified to evaluate the administration of the written and practical tests by an accredited crane operator testing organization (see paragraph (b) of this section).
  • The auditor must not be an employee of the employer.
  • The audit must be conducted in accordance with nationally recognized auditing standards.
  • The employer program must be audited within 3 months of the beginning of the program and at least every 3 years thereafter.
  • The employer program must have testing procedures for re-qualification designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section. The re-qualification procedures must be audited in accordance with paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

Deficiencies.

  • If the auditor determines that there is a significant deficiency (“deficiency”) in the program, the employer must ensure that:
  • No operator is qualified until the auditor confirms that the deficiency has been corrected.
  • The program is audited again within 180 days of the confirmation that the deficiency was corrected.
  • The auditor files a documented report of the deficiency to the appropriate Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration within 15 days of the auditor’s determination that there is a deficiency.
  • Records of the audits of the employer’s program are maintained by the auditor for three years and are made available by the auditor to the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary’s designated representative upon request.
  • A qualification under this paragraph is:
    • Not portable. Such a qualification meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section only where the operator is employed by (and operating the equipment for) the employer that issued the qualification.
  • Valid for 5 years.

 

Option (3): Qualification by the U.S. military.

  • For purposes of this section, an operator who is an employee of the U.S. military is considered qualified if he/she has a current operator qualification issued by the U.S. military for operation of the equipment. An employee of the U.S. military is a Federal employee of the Department of Defense or Armed Forces and does not include employees of private contractors.
  • A qualification under this paragraph is:
  • Not portable. Such a qualification meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section only where the operator is employed by (and operating the equipment for) the employer that issued the qualification.

 

  • Valid for the period of time stipulated by the issuing entity.

 

Option (4): Licensing by a government entity.

  • For purposes of this section, a government licensing department/office that issues operator licenses for operating equipment covered by this standard is considered a government accredited crane operator testing organization if the criteria in paragraph (e)(2) of this section are met.

Licensing criteria.

  • The requirements for obtaining the license include an assessment, by written and practical tests, of the operator applicant regarding, at a minimum, the knowledge and skills listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.
  • The testing meets industry recognized criteria for written testing materials, practical examinations, test administration, grading, facilities/equipment and personnel.
  • The government authority that oversees the licensing department/office, has determined that the requirements in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section have been met.
  • The licensing department/office has testing procedures for re-licensing designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.
  • A license issued by a government accredited crane operator testing organization that meets the requirements of this option:
  • Meets the operator qualification requirements of this section for operation of equipment only within the jurisdiction of the government entity.
  • Is valid for the period of time stipulated by the licensing department/office, but no longer than 5 years.

Pre-qualification/certification training period.

  • An employee who is not qualified or certified under this section is permitted to operate equipment only as an operator-in-training and only where the requirements of this paragraph are met.
  • The employer must provide each operator-in-training with sufficient training prior to operating the equipment to enable the operator-in-training to operate the equipment safely under limitations established by this section (including continuous monitoring) and any additional limitations established by the employer.
  • The tasks performed by the operator-in-training while operating the equipment must be within the operator-in-training’s ability.

Trainer.

  • While operating the equipment, the operator-in-training must be continuously monitored by an individual (“operator’s trainer”) who meets all of the following requirements:
  • The operator’s trainer is an employee or agent of the operator-in-training’s employer.
  • The operator’s trainer is either a certified operator under this section, or has passed the written portion of a certification test under one of the options in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, and is familiar with the proper use of the equipment’s controls.
  • While monitoring the operator-in-training, the operator’s trainer performs no tasks that detract from the trainer’s ability to monitor the operator-in-training.
  • For equipment other than tower cranes: The operator’s trainer and the operator-in-training must be in direct line of sight of each other. In addition, they must communicate verbally or by hand signals. For tower cranes: The operator’s trainer and the operator-in-training must be in direct communication with each other.

 

Continuous monitoring.

  • The operator-in-training must be monitored by the operator’s trainer at all times, except for short breaks where all of the following are met:
  • The break lasts no longer than 15 minutes and there is no more than one break per hour.
  • Immediately prior to the break the operator’s trainer informs the operator-in-training of the specific tasks that the operator-in-training is to perform and limitations to which he/she must adhere during the operator trainer’s break.
  • The specific tasks that the operator-in-training will perform during the operator trainer’s break are within the operator-in-training’s abilities.
  • The operator-in-training must not operate the equipment in any of the following circumstances unless the exception stated in paragraph (f)(5)(v) of this section is applicable:
  • If any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), if operated up to the equipment’s maximum working radius in the work zone (see § 1926.1408(a)(1)), could get within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV, or within 50 feet of a power line that is over 350 kV.
  • If the equipment is used to hoist personnel.
  • In multiple-equipment lifts.
  • If the equipment is used over a shaft, cofferdam, or in a tank farm.
  • In multiple-lift rigging operations, except where the operator’s trainer determines that the operator-in-training skills are sufficient for this high-skill work.
  • Under this section, a testing entity is permitted to provide training as well as testing services as long as the criteria of the applicable accrediting agency (in the option selected) for an organization providing both services are met.

Language and Literacy Requirements.

  • Tests under this section may be administered verbally, with answers given verbally, where the operator candidate:
  • Passes a written demonstration of literacy relevant to the work.
  • Demonstrates the ability to use the type of written manufacturer procedures applicable to the class/type of equipment for which the candidate is seeking certification.
  • Tests under this section may be administered in any language the operator candidate understands, and the operator’s certificate must note the language in which the test was given. The operator is qualified under paragraph (b)(2) of this section to operate equipment that is furnished with materials required by this subpart that are written in the language of the certification. The operator may only operate equipment furnished with such materials.

Certification criteria.

  • Qualifications and certifications must be based, at a minimum, on the following:
  • A determination through a written test that:
  • The individual knows the information necessary for safe operation of the specific type of equipment the individual will operate, including all of the following:
  • The controls and operational/performance characteristics.
  • Use of, and the ability to calculate (manually or with a calculator), load/capacity information on a variety of configurations of the equipment.
  • Procedures for preventing and responding to power line contact.
  • Technical knowledge similar to the subject matter criteria listed in Appendix C of this subpart applicable to the specific type of equipment the individual will operate. Use of the Appendix C criteria meets the requirements of this provision.
  • Technical knowledge applicable to:
  • The suitability of the supporting ground and surface to handle expected loads.
  • Site hazards.
  • Site access.
  • This subpart, including applicable incorporated materials.
  • The individual is able to read and locate relevant information in the equipment manual and other materials containing information referred to in paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section.
  • A determination through a practical test that the individual has the skills necessary for safe operation of the equipment, including the following:
  • Ability to recognize, from visual and auditory observation, the items listed in § 1926.1412(d) (shift inspection).
  • Operational and maneuvering skills.
  • Application of load chart information.
  • Application of safe shut-down and securing procedures.

 

Phase-in.

  • The provisions of this section became applicable on November 8, 2010, except for paragraphs (a)(2) and (f), which are applicable November 10, 2017.
  • When § 1926.1427(a)(1) is not applicable, all of the requirements in paragraphs (k)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section apply until November 10, 2017.
  • The employer must ensure that operators of equipment covered by this standard are competent to operate the equipment safely.
  • When an employee assigned to operate machinery does not have the required knowledge or ability to operate the equipment safely, the employer must train that employee prior to operating the equipment. The employer must ensure that each operator is evaluated to confirm that he/she understands the information provided in the training.

 

1926.1428 – signal person 

  • The employer of the signal person must ensure that each signal person meets the Qualification Requirements (paragraph (c) of this section) prior to giving any signals. This requirement must be met by using either Option (1) or Option (2) of this section.

 

Option (1)–Third party qualified evaluator.

  • The signal person has documentation from a third party qualified evaluator (see Qualified Evaluator (third party), § 1926.1401 for definition) showing that the signal person meets the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section).

 

Option (2)–Employer’s qualified evaluator.

  • The employer’s qualified (see Qualified Evaluator (not a third party), § 1926.1401 for definition) evaluator assesses the individual and determines that the individual meets the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section) and provides documentation of that determination. An assessment by an employer’s qualified evaluator under this option is not portable–other employers are not permitted to use it to meet the requirements of this section.

 

  • The employer must make the documentation for whichever option is used available at the site while the signal person is employed by the employer. The documentation must specify each type of signaling (e.g. hand signals, radio signals, etc.) for which the signal person meets the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

 

  • If subsequent actions by the signal person indicate that the individual does not meet the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section), the employer must not allow the individual to continue working as a signal person until re-training is provided and a re-assessment is made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section that confirms that the individual meets the Qualification Requirements.

 

Qualification Requirements.

  • Each signal person must:

 

  • Know and understand the type of signals used. If hand signals are used, the signal person must know and understand the Standard Method for hand signals.

 

  • Be competent in the application of the type of signals used.

 

  • Have a basic understanding of equipment operation and limitations, including the crane dynamics involved in swinging and stopping loads and boom deflection from hoisting loads.

 

  • Know and understand the relevant requirements of § 1926.1419 through § 1926.1422 and § 1926.1428.

 

  • Demonstrate that he/she meets the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section through an oral or written test, and through a practical test.

 

1926.1429

 

  • Maintenance, inspection and repair personnel are permitted to operate the equipment only where all of the following requirements are met:

 

  • The operation is limited to those functions necessary to perform maintenance, inspect the equipment, or verify its performance.

 

  • The personnel either:

 

  • Operate the equipment under the direct supervision of an operator who meets the requirements of § 1926.1427 (Operator qualification and certification); or

 

  • Are familiar with the operation, limitations, characteristics and hazards associated with the type of equipment.

 

  • Maintenance and repair personnel must meet the definition of a qualified person with respect to the equipment and maintenance/repair tasks performed.

 

1926.1430

  • The employer must provide training as follows:

Overhead powerlines.

 

  • The employer must train each employee specified in § 1926.1408(g) and § 1926.1410(m) in the topics listed in § 1926.1408(g).

 

Signal persons.

  • The employer must train each employee who will be assigned to work as a signal persons who does not meet the requirements of § 1926.1428(c) in the areas addressed in that paragraph.

 

Operators.

 

Operators-in-Training for equipment where certification or qualification is required by this subpart.

  • The employer must train each operator-in-training in the areas addressed in § 1926.1427(j). The employer must provide re-training if the operator-in-training does not pass a qualification or certification test.

 

Transitional Period.

  • During the four-year phase-in period for operator certification or qualification, as provided in § 1926.1427(k), employers must train each operator who has not yet been certified or qualified in the areas addressed in § 1926.1427(j).

 

Operators excepted from the requirements of § 1926.1427.

  • The employer must train each operator excepted under § 1926.1427(a) from the requirements of § 1926.1427 on the safe operation of the equipment the operator will be using.

 

  • The employer must train each operator of the equipment covered by this subpart in the following practices:

 

  • On friction equipment, whenever moving a boom off a support, first raise the boom a short distance (sufficient to take the load of the boom) to determine if the boom hoist brake needs to be adjusted. On other types of equipment with a boom, the same practice is applicable, except that typically there is no means of adjusting the brake; if the brake does not hold, a repair is necessary.See § 1926.1417(f) and (j) for additional requirements.

 

  • Where available, the manufacturer’s emergency procedures for halting unintended equipment movement.

 

Competent persons and qualified persons.

  • The employer must train each competent person and each qualified person regarding the requirements of this subpart applicable to their respective roles.

 

Crush/pinch points.

  • The employer must train each employee who works with the equipment to keep clear of holes, and crush/pinch points and the hazards addressed in § 1926.1424 (Work area control).

 

Tag-out.

  • The employer must train each operator and each additional employee authorized to start/energize equipment or operate equipment controls (such as maintenance and repair employees), in the tag-out and start-up procedures in § § 1926.1417(f) and (g).

 

Training administration.

  • The employer must evaluate each employee required to be trained under this subpart to confirm that the employee understands the information provided in the training.

 

  • The employer must provide refresher training in relevant topics for each employee when, based on the conduct of the employee or an evaluation of the employee’s knowledge, there is an indication that retraining is necessary.

 

  • Whenever training is required under subpart CC, the employer must provide the training at no cost to the employee.

 

 

1926.1431

The requirements of this section are supplemental to the other requirements in this subpart and apply when one or more employees are hoisted.

 

  • The use of equipment to hoist employees is prohibited except where the employer demonstrates that the erection, use, and dismantling of conventional means of reaching the work area, such as a personnel hoist, ladder, stairway, aerial lift, elevating work platform, or scaffold, would be more hazardous, or is not possible because of the project’s structural design or worksite conditions. This paragraph does not apply to work covered by subpart R (Steel Erection) of this part.

 

Use of personnel platform.

  • When using equipment to hoist employees, the employees must be in a personnel platform that meets the requirements of paragraph (e) of this section.

 

Exceptions: A personnel platform is not required for hoisting employees:

 

  • Into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including 8 feet in diameter (see paragraph (o) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).

 

  • In pile driving operations (see paragraph (p) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).

 

  • Solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite in a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device (see paragraph (r) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).

 

  • In storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations (see paragraph (s) of this section for requirements for hoisting these employees).

 

Equipment set-up.

 

  • The equipment must be uniformly level, within one percent of level grade, and located on footing that a qualified person has determined to be sufficiently firm and stable.

 

  • Equipment with outriggers or stabilizers must have them all extended and locked. The amount of extension must be the same for all outriggers and stabilizers and in accordance with manufacturer procedures and load charts.

 

Equipment criteria.

 

Capacity:

Use of suspended personnel platforms.

  • The total load (with the platform loaded, including the hook, load line and rigging) must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing.

 

Capacity:

Use of boom-attached personnel platforms.

  • The total weight of the loaded personnel platform must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment (except during proof testing).

 

Capacity:

Hoisting personnel without a personnel platform.

  • When hoisting personnel without a personnel platform pursuant to paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the total load (including the hook, load line, rigging and any other equipment that imposes a load) must not exceed 50 percent of the rated capacity for the radius and configuration of the equipment, except during proof testing.

 

  • When the occupied personnel platform is in a stationary working position, the load and boom hoist brakes, swing brakes, and operator actuated secondary braking and locking features (such as pawls or dogs) or automatic secondary brakes must be engaged.

 

Devices.

 

  • Equipment (except for derricks and articulating cranes) with a variable angle boom must be equipped with all of the following:

 

  • A boom angle indicator, readily visible to the operator, and

 

  • A boom hoist limiting device.

 

  • Articulating cranes must be equipped with a properly functioning automatic overload protection device.

 

  • Equipment with a luffing jib must be equipped with:

 

  • A jib angle indicator, readily visible to the operator, and.

 

  • A jib hoist limiting device.

 

  • Equipment with telescoping booms must be equipped with a device to indicate the boom’s extended length clearly to the operator, or must have measuring marks on the boom.

 

Anti two-block.

  • A device which automatically prevents damage and load failure from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component) must be used. The device(s) must prevent such damage/failure at all points where two-blocking could occur.

 

Exception: This device is not required when hoisting personnel in pile driving operations. Instead, paragraph (p)(2) of this section specifies how to prevent two-blocking during such operations.

 

Controlled load lowering.

  • The load line hoist drum must have a system, other than the load line hoist brake, which regulates the lowering rate of speed of the hoist mechanism. This system or device must be used when hoisting personnel.Note: Free fall of the load line hoist is prohibited (see § 1926.1426(d); the use of equipment in which the boom hoist mechanism can free fall is also prohibited (see § 1926.1426(a)(1).

 

Proper operation required.

  • Personnel hoisting operations must not begin unless the devices listed in this section are in proper working order. If a device stops working properly during such operations, the operator must safely stop operations. Personnel hoisting operations must not resume until the device is again working properly. Alternative measures are not permitted. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)

 

  • Direct attachment of a personnel platform to a luffing jib is prohibited.

 

Personnel platform criteria.

 

  • A qualified person familiar with structural design must design the personnel platform and attachment/suspension system used for hoisting personnel.

 

  • The system used to connect the personnel platform to the equipment must allow the platform to remain within 10 degrees of level, regardless of boom angle.

 

  • The suspension system must be designed to minimize tipping of the platform due to movement of employees occupying the platform.

 

  • The personnel platform itself (excluding the guardrail system and personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

 

  • All welding of the personnel platform and its components must be performed by a certified welder familiar with the weld grades, types and material specified in the platform design.

 

  • The personnel platform must be equipped with a guardrail system which meets the requirements of subpart M of this part, and must be enclosed at least from the toeboard to mid-rail with either solid construction material or expanded metal having openings no greater than ½ inch (1.27 cm). Points to which personal fall arrest systems are attached must meet the anchorage requirements in subpart M of this part.

 

  • A grab rail must be installed inside the entire perimeter of the personnel platform except for access gates/doors.

 

Access gates/doors.

  • If installed, access gates/doors of all types (including swinging, sliding, folding, or other types) must:

 

  • Not swing outward. If due to the size of the personnel platform, such as a 1-person platform, it is infeasible for the door to swing inward and allow safe entry for the platform occupant, then the access gate/door may swing outward.

 

  • Be equipped with a device that prevents accidental opening.

 

  • Headroom must be sufficient to allow employees to stand upright in the platform.

 

  • In addition to the use of hard hats, employees must be protected by overhead protection on the personnel platform when employees are exposed to falling objects. The platform overhead protection must not obscure the view of the operator or platform occupants (such as wire mesh that has up to ½ inch openings), unless full protection is necessary.

 

  • All edges exposed to employee contact must be smooth enough to prevent injury.

 

  • The weight of the platform and its rated capacity must be conspicuously posted on the platform with a plate or other permanent marking.

 

Personnel platform loading.

 

  • The personnel platform must not be loaded in excess of its rated capacity.

 

Use.

 

  • Personnel platforms must be used only for employees, their tools, and the materials necessary to do their work. Platforms must not be used to hoist materials or tools when not hoisting personnel.

 

Exception: Materials and tools to be used during the lift, if secured and distributed in accordance with paragraph (f)(3) of this section may be in the platform for trial lifts.

 

  • Materials and tools must be:

 

  • Secured to prevent displacement.

 

  • Evenly distributed within the confines of the platform while it is suspended.

 

  • The number of employees occupying the personnel platform must not exceed the maximum number the platform was designed to hold or the number required to perform the work, whichever is less.

 

Attachment and rigging.

 

Hooks and other detachable devices.

 

  • Hooks used in the connection between the hoist line and the personnel platform (including hooks on overhaul ball assemblies, lower load blocks, bridle legs, or other attachment assemblies or components) must be:
    • Of a type that can be closed and locked, eliminating the throat opening.
    • Closed and locked when attached.
    • Shackles used in place of hooks must be of the alloy anchor type, with either:
    • A bolt, nut and retaining pin, in place; or
    • Of the screw type, with the screw pin secured from accidental removal.
    • Where other detachable devices are used, they must be of the type that can be closed and locked to the same extent as the devices addressed in paragraphs (g)(1)(i) and (ii) of this section. Such devices must be closed and locked when attached.

 

Rope bridle.

  • When a rope bridle is used to suspend the personnel platform, each bridle leg must be connected to a master link or shackle (see paragraph (g)(1) of this section) in a manner that ensures that the load is evenly divided among the bridle legs.

 

Rigging hardware (including wire rope, shackles, rings, master links, and other rigging hardware) and hooks

  • must be capable of supporting, without failure, at least five times the maximum intended load applied or transmitted to that component. Where rotation resistant rope is used, the slings must be capable of supporting without failure at least ten times the maximum intended load.

 

  • Eyes in wire rope slings must be fabricated with thimbles.

 

  • Bridles and associated rigging for suspending the personnel platform must be used only for the platform and the necessary employees, their tools and materials necessary to do their work. The bridles and associated rigging must not have been used for any purpose other than hoisting personnel.

 

Trial lift and inspection.

  • A trial lift with the unoccupied personnel platform loaded at least to the anticipated liftweight must be made from ground level, or any other location where employees will enter the platform, to each location at which the platform is to be hoisted and positioned. Where there is more than one location to be reached from a single set-up position, either individual trial lifts for each location, or a single trial lift, in which the platform is moved sequentially to each location, must be performed; the method selected must be the same as the method that will be used to hoist the personnel.

 

  • The trial lift must be performed immediately prior to each shift in which personnel will be hoisted. In addition, the trial lift must be repeated prior to hoisting employees in each of the following circumstances:

 

  • The equipment is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location.

 

  • The lift route is changed, unless the competent person determines that the new route presents no new factors affecting safety.

 

  • The competent person must determine that:
    • Safety devices and operational aids required by this section are activated and functioning properly. Other safety devices and operational aids must meet the requirements of § 1926.1415 and § 1926.1416.
    • Nothing interferes with the equipment or the personnel platform in the course of the trial lift.
    • The lift will not exceed 50 percent of the equipment’s rated capacity at any time during the lift.
    • The load radius to be used during the lift has been accurately determined.
    • Immediately after the trial lift, the competent person must:
    • Conduct a visual inspection of the equipment, base support or ground, and personnel platform, to determine whether the trial lift has exposed any defect or problem or produced any adverse effect.
    • Confirm that, upon the completion of the trial lift process, the test weight has been removed.

 

  • Immediately prior to each lift:
    • The platform must be hoisted a few inches with the personnel and materials/tools on board and inspected by a competent person to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced.

 

  • The following conditions must be determined by a competent person to exist before the lift of personnel proceeds:

 

    • Hoist ropes must be free of deficiencies in accordance with § 1926.1413(a).
    • Multiple part lines must not be twisted around each other.
    • The primary attachment must be centered over the platform.
    • If the load rope is slack, the hoisting system must be inspected to ensure that all ropes are properly seated on drums and in sheaves.
    • Any condition found during the trial lift and subsequent inspection(s) that fails to meet a requirement of this standard or otherwise creates a safety hazard must be corrected before hoisting personnel. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)

 

Proof testing.

  • At each jobsite, prior to hoisting employees on the personnel platform, and after any repair or modification, the platform and rigging must be proof tested to 125 percent of the platform’s rated capacity. The proof test may be done concurrently with the trial lift.

 

  • The platform must be lowered by controlled load lowering, braked, and held in a suspended position for a minimum of five minutes with the test load evenly distributed on the platform.

 

  • After proof testing, a competent person must inspect the platform and rigging to determine if the test has been passed. If any deficiencies are found that pose a safety hazard, the platform and rigging must not be used to hoist personnel unless the deficiencies are corrected, the test is repeated, and a competent person determines that the test has been passed. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)

 

  • Personnel hoisting must not be conducted until the competent person determines that the platform and rigging have successfully passed the proof test.

 

Work practices.

 

  • Hoisting of the personnel platform must be performed in a slow, controlled, cautious manner, with no sudden movements of the equipment or the platform.

 

  • Platform occupants must:

 

    • Keep all parts of the body inside the platform during raising, lowering, and horizontal movement. This provision does not apply to an occupant of the platform when necessary to position the platform or while performing the duties of a signal person.

 

    • Not stand, sit on, or work from the top or intermediate rail or toeboard, or use any other means/device to raise their working height.

 

    • Not pull the platform out of plumb in relation to the hoisting equipment.

 

  • Before employees exit or enter a hoisted personnel platform that is not landed, the platform must be secured to the structure where the work is to be performed, unless the employer can demonstrate that securing to the structure would create a greater hazard.

 

  • If the platform is tied to the structure, the operator must not move the platform until the operator receives confirmation that it is freely suspended.

 

  • Tag lines must be used when necessary to control the platform.

 

Platforms without controls.

  • Where the platform is not equipped with controls, the equipment operator must remain at the equipment controls, on site, and in view of the equipment, at all times while the platform is occupied.

 

Platforms with controls.

  • Where the platform is equipped with controls, all of the following must be met at all times while the platform is occupied:

 

  • The occupant using the controls in the platform must be a qualified person with respect to their use, including the safe limitations of the equipment and hazards associated with its operation.

 

  • The equipment operator must be at a set of equipment controls that include boom and swing functions of the equipment, and must be on site and in view of the equipment.

 

  • The platform operating manual must be in the platform or on the equipment.

 

Environmental conditions.

 

  • Wind.
    When wind speed (sustained or gusts) exceeds 20 mph at the personnel platform, a qualified person must determine if, in light of the wind conditions, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation must not begin (or, if already in progress, must be terminated).

 

  • Other weather and environmental conditions.
    A qualified person must determine if, in light of indications of dangerous weather conditions, or other impending or existing danger, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation must not begin (or, if already in progress, must be terminated).

 

  • Employees being hoisted must remain in direct communication with the signal person (where used), or the operator.

 

Fall protection.

  • Except over water, employees occupying the personnel platform must be provided and use a personal fall arrest system. The system must be attached to a structural member within the personnel platform. When working over or near water, the requirements of § 1926.106 apply.

 

  • The fall arrest system, including the attachment point (anchorage) used to comply with paragraph (i) of this section, must meet the requirements in § 1926.502.

 

Other load lines.

  • No lifts must be made on any other of the equipment’s load lines while personnel are being hoisted, except in pile driving operations.

 

Factory-produced boom-mounted personnel platforms that incorporate a winch as original equipment.

  • Loads are permitted to be hoisted by such a winch while employees occupy the personnel platform only where the load on the winch line does not exceed 500 pounds and does not exceed the rated capacity of the winch and platform.

 

Traveling–equipment other than derricks.

  • Hoisting of employees while the equipment is traveling is prohibited, except for:
    • Equipment that travels on fixed rails; or
    • Where the employer demonstrates that there is no less hazardous way to perform the work.
    • This exception does not apply to rubber-tired equipment.

 

  • Where employees are hoisted while the equipment is traveling, all of the following criteria must be met:
    • Equipment travel must be restricted to a fixed track or runway.
    • Where a runway is used, it must be a firm, level surface designed, prepared and designated as a path of travel for the weight and configuration of the equipment being used to lift and travel with the personnel platform. An existing surface may be used as long as it meets these criteria.

 

  • Equipment travel must be limited to boom length.

 

  • The boom must be parallel to the direction of travel, except where it is safer to do otherwise.

 

  • A complete trial run must be performed to test the route of travel before employees are allowed to occupy the platform. This trial run can be performed at the same time as the trial lift required by paragraph (h) of this section which tests the lift route.

 

Traveling–derricks.

  • Derricks are prohibited from traveling while personnel are hoisted.

 

Pre-lift meeting.

  • A pre-lift meeting must be:
    • Held to review the applicable requirements of this section and the procedures that will be followed.
    • Attended by the equipment operator, signal person (if used for the lift), employees to be hoisted, and the person responsible for the task to be performed.
    • Held prior to the trial lift at each new work location, and must be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation.

 

Hoisting personnel near power lines.

  • Hoisting personnel within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV, and hoisting personnel within 50 feet of a power line that is over 350 kV, is prohibited, except for work covered by subpart V of this part (Power Transmission and Distribution).

 

Hoisting personnel in drill shafts.

  • When hoisting employees into and out of drill shafts that are up to and including 8 feet in diameter, all of the following requirements must be met:
    • The employee must be in either a personnel platform or on a boatswain’s chair.
    • If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (a) through (n) of this section apply.
    • If using a boatswain’s chair:
      • The following paragraphs of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1), (f)(2)(i), (f)(3)(i), (g), (h), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(11)(i), (m), (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these paragraphs, substitute them with “boatswain’s chair.”

 

  • A signal person must be stationed at the shaft opening.

 

  • The employee must be hoisted in a slow, controlled descent and ascent.

 

  • The employee must use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, attached independent of the crane/derrick.

 

  • The fall protection equipment must meet the applicable requirements in § 1926.502.

 

  • The boatswain’s chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

 

  • No more than one person must be hoisted at a time.

 

Hoisting personnel for pile driving operations.

  • When hoisting an employee in pile driving operations, the following requirements must be met:

 

  • The employee must be in a personnel platform or boatswain’s chair.

 

  • For lattice boom cranes: Clearly mark the cable (so that it can easily be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached. For telescopic boom cranes: Clearly mark the cable (so that it can be easily seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, and use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.

 

  • If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (b) through (n) of this section apply.

 

  • If using a boatswain’s chair:
    • The following paragraphs of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1), (f)(2)(i), (f)(3)(i), (g), (h), (j), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(11)(i), (m), and (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these paragraphs, substitute them with “boatswains chair.”
    • The employee must be hoisted in a slow, controlled descent and ascent.
    • The employee must use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, independently attached to the lower load block or overhaul ball.
    • The fall protection equipment must meet the applicable requirements in § 1926.502.
    • The boatswain’s chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.
  • No more than one person must be hoisted at a time.

 

Hoisting personnel for marine transfer.

  • When hoisting employees solely for transfer to or from a marine worksite, the following requirements must be met:
    • The employee must be in either a personnel platform or a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device.
    • If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (a) through (n) of this section apply.
    • If using a marine-hoisted personnel transfer device:

 

  • The following paragraphs of this section apply: (a), (c)(2), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1) through (5), (e)(12), (f)(1), (g), (h), (j), (k)(1), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(10)(ii), (k)(11)(i), (k)(12), (m), and (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these paragraphs, substitute them with “marine-hoisted personnel transfer device.”

 

  • The transfer device must be used only for transferring workers.

 

  • The number of workers occupying the transfer device must not exceed the maximum number it was designed to hold.

 

  • Each employee must wear a U.S. Coast Guard personal flotation device approved for industrial use.

 

Hoisting personnel for storage-tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations.

  • When hoisting an employee in storage tank (steel or concrete), shaft and chimney operations, the following requirements must be met:
    • The employee must be in a personnel platform except when the employer can demonstrate that use of a personnel platform is infeasible; in such a case, a boatswain’s chair must be used.
    • If using a personnel platform, paragraphs (a) through (n) of this section apply.

 

  • If using a boatswain’s chair:
    • The following paragraphs of this section apply: (a), (c), (d)(1), (d)(3), (d)(4), (e)(1), (e)(2), (e)(3), (f)(1), (f)(2)(i), (f)(3)(i), (g), (h), (k)(1), (k)(6), (k)(8), (k)(9), (k)(11)(i), (m), (n). Where the terms “personnel platform” or “platform” are used in these paragraphs, substitute them with “boatswains chair.”

 

  • The employee must be hoisted in a slow, controlled descent and ascent.

 

  • The employee must use personal fall protection equipment, including a full body harness, attached independent of the crane/derrick. When there is no adequate structure for attachment of personal fall arrest equipment as required in § 1926.502(d)(15), the attachment must be to the lower load block or overhaul ball.

 

  • The fall protection equipment must meet the applicable requirements in § 1926.502.

 

  • The boatswain’s chair itself (excluding the personal fall arrest system anchorages), must be capable of supporting, without failure, its own weight and at least five times the maximum intended load.

 

  • No more than one person must be hoisted at a time.

 

 

1926.1432

 

Plan development.

  • Before beginning a crane/derrick operation in which more than one crane/derrick will be supporting the load, the operation must be planned. The planning must meet the following requirements:

 

  • The plan must be developed by a qualified person.

 

  • The plan must be designed to ensure that the requirements of this subpart are met.

 

  • Where the qualified person determines that engineering expertise is needed for the planning, the employer must ensure that it is provided.

 

Plan implementation.

 

  • The multiple-crane/derrick lift must be directed by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person, or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons (lift director).

 

  • The lift director must review the plan in a meeting with all workers who will be involved with the operation.

 

1926.1433

The following requirements apply to equipment that has a manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of more than 2,000 pounds.

 

All equipment covered by this subpart must meet the following requirements:

 

Rated capacity and related information.

  • The information available in the cab (see § 1926.1417(c)) regarding “rated capacity” and related information must include, at a minimum, the following information:

 

  • A complete range of the manufacturer’s equipment rated capacities, as follows:
    • At all manufacturer approved operating radii, boom angles, work areas, boom lengths and configurations, jib lengths and angles (or offset).
    • Alternate ratings for use and nonuse of option equipment which affects rated capacities, such as outriggers, stabilizers, and extra counterweights.
    • A work area chart for which capacities are listed in the load chart
    • The work area figure and load chart must clearly indicate the areas where no load is to be handled.
    • Recommended reeving for the hoist lines must be shown.
    • Recommended parts of hoist reeving, size, and type of wire rope for various equipment loads.
    • Recommended boom hoist reeving diagram, where applicable; size, type and length of wire rope.
    • Tire pressure (where applicable).
    • Caution or warnings relative to limitations on equipment and operating procedures, including an indication of the least stable direction.
    • Position of the gantry and requirements for intermediate boom suspension (where applicable).
    • Instructions for boom erection and conditions under which the boom, or boom and jib combinations, may be raised or lowered.
    • Whether the hoist holding mechanism is automatically or manually controlled, whether free fall is available, or any combination of these.
    • The maximum telescopic travel length of each boom telescopic section.
    • Whether sections are telescoped manually or with power.
    • The sequence and procedure for extending and retracting the telescopic boom section.
    • Maximum loads permitted during the boom extending operation, and any limiting conditions or cautions.
    • Hydraulic relief valve settings specified by the manufacturer.

 

  • Load hooks (including latched and unlatched types), ball assemblies and load blocks must be of sufficient weight to overhaul the line from the highest hook position for boom or boom and jib lengths and the number of parts of the line in use.

 

  • Hook and ball assemblies and load blocks must be marked with their rated capacity and weight.

 

  • Hook and ball assemblies and load blocks must be marked with their rated capacity and weight.

 

Latching hooks.

 

  • Hooks must be equipped with latches, except where the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section are met.

 

  • Hooks without latches, or with latches removed or disabled, must not be used unless:
    • A qualified person has determined that it is safer to hoist and place the load without latches (or with the latches removed/tied-back).
  • Routes for the loads are pre-planned to ensure that no employee is required to work in the fall zone except for employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load.

 

  • The latch must close the throat opening and be designed to retain slings or other lifting devices/accessories in the hook when the rigging apparatus is slack.

 

Posted warnings.

  • Posted warnings required by this subpart as well as those originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer must be maintained in legible condition.

 

  • An accessible fire extinguisher must be on the equipment.

 

Cabs.

  • Equipment with cabs must meet the following requirements:
    • Cabs must be designed with a form of adjustable ventilation and method for clearing the windshield for maintaining visibility and air circulation. Examples of means for adjustable ventilation include air conditioner or window that can be opened (for ventilation and air circulation); examples of means for maintaining visibility include heater (for preventing windshield icing), defroster, fan, windshield wiper.

 

    • Cab doors (swinging, sliding) must be designed to prevent inadvertent opening or closing while traveling or operating the machine. Swinging doors adjacent to the operator must open outward. Sliding operator doors must open rearward.

 

Windows

 

  • The cab must have windows in front and on both sides of the operator. Forward vertical visibility must be sufficient to give the operator a view of the boom point at all times.

 

  • Windows may have sections designed to be opened or readily removed. Windows with sections designed to be opened must be designed so that they can be secured to prevent inadvertent closure.

 

  • Windows must be of safety glass or material with similar optical and safety properties, that introduce no visible distortion or otherwise obscure visibility that interferes with the safe operation of the equipment.

 

  • A clear passageway must be provided from the operator’s station to an exit door on the operator’s side.

 

  • Areas of the cab roof that serve as a workstation for rigging, maintenance or other equipment-related tasks must be capable of supporting 250 pounds without permanent distortion.

 

  • Belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, and other parts or components that reciprocate, rotate or otherwise move must be guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties.

 

  • All exhaust pipes, turbochargers, and charge air coolers must be insulated or guarded where contact by employees (except for maintenance and repair employees) is possible in the performance of normal duties.

 

  • Hydraulic and pneumatic lines must be protected from damage to the extent feasible.

 

  • The equipment must be designed so that exhaust fumes are not discharged in the cab and are discharged in a direction away from the operator.

 

Friction mechanisms.

  • Where friction mechanisms (such as brakes and clutches) are used to control the boom hoist or load line hoist, they must be:
    • Of a size and thermal capacity sufficient to control all rated loads with the minimum recommended reeving.
    • Adjustable to permit compensation for lining wear to maintain proper operation.

 

Hydraulic load hoists.

  • Hydraulic drums must have an integrally mounted holding device or internal static brake to prevent load hoist movement in the event of hydraulic failure.

 

  • The employer’s obligations under paragraphs (a) through (c) and (d)(7) through (13) of this section are met where the equipment has not changed (except in accordance with § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications)) and it can refer to documentation from the manufacturer showing that the equipment has been designed, constructed and tested in accordance with those paragraphs.

 

Appendix B to Subpart CC of Part 1926–Assembly/Disassembly: Sample Procedures for Minimizing the Risk of Unintended Dangerous Boom Movement

  • Section 1926.1404(f)(1) provides that when pins (or similar devices) are being removed, employees must not be under the boom, jib, or other components, except where the requirements of § 1926.1404(f)(2) are met. The exception in § 1926.1404(f)(2) applies when the employer demonstrates that site constraints require one or more employees to be under the boom, jib, or other components when pins (or similar devices) are being removed. In such a situation, the A/D director must implement procedures that minimize the risk of unintended dangerous movement and minimize the duration and extent of exposure under the boom.
  • The following scenario is an example of how the exception applies: A boom cannot be disassembled on the ground because of aboveground piping (as might be found, for example, in an oil refinery) that precludes lowering the boom to the ground. The boom must therefore be disassembled in the air, and the employees who remove the pins must perform that work from an aerial lift whose base is positioned on one side (the near side) of the boom. To gain access to the pins on the far side, the aerial lift basket must move under the boom, since, due to lack of room, the aerial lift cannot be repositioned on the far side. Due to lack of room, the aerial lift cannot be repositioned on the far side, so the aerial basket must move under the boom to gain access to the pins on the far side.To minimize the risk of unintended dangerous movement while the pins are removed, the A/D director uses an assist crane that is rigged to support the boom section that is being detached, using particular care to ensure that the section end that is near the employee(s) removing the pins is well supported. The duration and extent of exposure is minimized by removing the far side pins first, moving the aerial lift basket as soon as possible to the near side so that the employees are no longer under the boom, and then removing the near side pins.
  • Section 1926.1404(h)(6)(i) provides that, during assembly/disassembly, the center of gravity of the load must be identified if that is necessary for the method used for maintaining stability. Section 1926.1404(h)(6)(ii) states that, where there is insufficient information to accurately identify the center of gravity, measures designed to prevent unintended dangerous movement resulting from an inaccurate identification of the center of gravity must be used.An example of the application of § 1926.1404(h)(6)(ii) is as follows: The boom is assembled by lowering boom sections sequentially into place using an assist crane. The A/D director’s plan is to keep the boom sections stable while they are lowered into place by attaching the assist crane hoist line above the center of gravity of each section. However, in assembling the non-symmetrical top section of the boom, the A/D director is not able to determine where to attach the assist crane hoist line so that it is above the center of gravity. In this situation, before raising the section, all personnel are kept clear of the section and the section is first raised a few inches to determine whether it tips when raised (if it did tip, it would indicate it is not rigged over the center of gravity). If this occurs, the hoist line is repositioned and the procedure repeated (with employees kept clear of the section while it is raised) until the A/D director determines that it is rigged over the center of gravity and can be moved into place without dangerous movement.

 

Appendix C to Subpart CC of Part 1926–Operator Certification:

Written Examination: Technical Knowledge Criteria

This appendix contains information for employers, accredited testing organizations, auditors and government entities developing criteria for a written examination to test an individual’s technical knowledge relating to the operation of cranes.

(a) General technical information.

 

(1) The functions and limitations of the crane and attachments.

(2) Wire rope:

(i) Background information necessary to understand the inspection and removal from service criteria in § 1926.1413 and § 1926.1414.

(ii) Capacity and when multi-part rope is needed.

(iii) Relationship between line pull and safe working load.

(iv) How to determine the manufacturer’s recommended rope for the crane.

(3) Rigging devices and their use, such as:

(i) Slings.

(ii) Spreaders.

(iii) Lifting beams.

(iv) Wire rope fittings, such as clips, shackles and wedge sockets.

(v) Saddles (softeners).

(vi) Clamps (beams).

(4) The technical limitations of protective measures against electrical hazards:

(i) Grounding.

(ii) Proximity warning devices.

(iii) Insulated links.

(iv) Boom cages.

(v) Proximity to electric power lines, radii, and microwave structures.

(5) The effects of load share and load transfer in multi-crane lifts.

(6) Basic crane terms.

(7) The basics of machine power flow systems.

(i) Mechanical.

(ii) Electrical.

(iii) Pneumatic.

(iv) Hydraulic.

(v) Combination.

(8) The significance of the instruments and gauge readings.

(9) The effects of thermal expansion and contraction in hydraulic cylinders.

(10) Background information necessary to understand the requirements of pre-operation and inspection.

(11) How to use the safety devices and operational aids required under § 1926.1415 and § 1926.1416.

(12) The difference between duty-cycle and lifting operations.

(13) How to calculate net capacity for every possible configuration of the equipment using the manufacturer’s load chart.

(14) How to use manufacturer-approved attachments and their effect on the equipment.

(15) How to obtain dimensions, weight, and center of gravity of the load.

(16) The effects of dynamic loading from:

(i) Wind.

(ii) Stopping and starting.

(iii) Impact loading.

(iv) Moving with the load.

(17) The effect of side loading.

(18) The principles of backward stability.

 

(b) Site information.

(1) How to identify the suitability of the supporting ground/surface to support the expected loads of the operation. Elements include:

(i) Weaknesses below the surface (such as voids, tanks, loose fill).

(ii) Weaknesses on the surface (such as retaining walls, slopes, excavations, depressions).

(2) Proper use of mats, blocking/cribbing, outriggers, stabilizers, or crawlers.

(3) Identification of site hazards such as power lines, piping, and traffic.

(4) How to review operation plans with supervisors and other workers (such as the signal person), including how to determine working height, boom length, load radius, and travel clearance.

(5) How to determine if there is adequate room for extension of crawlers or outriggers/stabilizers and counterweights.

 

(c) Operations.

(1) How to pick, carry, swing and place the load smoothly and safely on rubber tires and on outriggers/stabilizers or crawlers (where applicable).

(2) How to communicate at the site with supervisors, the crew and the signal person.

(3) Proper procedures and methods of reeving wire ropes and methods of reeving multiple-part lines and selecting the proper load block and/or ball.

(4) How to react to changes in conditions that affect the safe operation of the equipment.

(5) How to shut down and secure the equipment properly when leaving it unattended.

(6) Know how to apply the manufacturer’s specifications for operating in various weather conditions, and understand how environmental conditions affect the safe operation of the equipment.

(7) How to properly level the equipment.

(8) How to verify the weight of the load and rigging prior to initiating the lift.

(9) How to determine where the load is to be picked up and placed and how to verify the radii.

(10) Know basic rigging procedures.

(11) How to carry out the shift inspection required in this subpart.

(12) Know that the following operations require specific procedures and skill levels:

(i) Multi-crane lifts. (ii) Hoisting personnel.

(iii) Clamshell/dragline operations.

(iv) Pile driving and extracting.

(v) Concrete operations, including poured-in-place and tilt-up.

(vi) Demolition operations.

(vii) Operations on water.

(viii) Magnet operations.

(ix) Multi-drum operations.

(13) Know the proper procedures for operating safely under the following conditions:

(i) Traveling with suspended loads.

(ii) Approaching a two-block condition.

(iii) Operating near power lines.

(iv) Hoisting personnel.

(v) Using other than full outrigger/crawler or stabilizer extensions.

(vi) Lifting loads from beneath the surface of the water.

(vii) Using various approved counterweight configurations.

(viii) Handling loads out of the operator’s vision (“operating in the blind”).

(ix) Using electronic communication systems for signal communication.

(14) Know the proper procedures for load control and the use of hand-held tag lines.

(15) Know the emergency response procedure for:

(i) Fires.

(ii) Power line contact.

(iii) Loss of stability.

(iv) Control malfunction.

(v) Two-blocking.

(vi) Overload.

(vii) Carrier or travel malfunction.

(16) Know how to properly use outriggers and stabilizers in accordance with manufacturer specifications.

 

(d) Use of load charts.

(1) Know the terminology necessary to use load charts.

(2) Know how to ensure that the load chart is the appropriate chart for the equipment in its particular configuration and application.

(3) Know how to use load charts. This includes knowing:

(i) The operational limitations of load charts and footnotes.

(ii) How to relate the chart to the configuration of the crane, crawlers, or outriggers/stabilizers extended or retracted, jib erected or offset, and various counterweight configurations.

(iii) The difference between structural capacity and capacity limited by stability.

(iv) What is included in capacity ratings.

(v) The range diagram and its relationship to the load chart.

(vi) The work area chart and its relationship to the load chart.

(vii) Where to find and how to use the “parts-of-line” information.

(4) Know how to use the load chart together with the load indicators and/or load moment devices.